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S. G. & E. L. ELBERT 

IpbpSiCltitii tiT EL LA S MITH ELBSHJ «88 

L I B E E I A ; 






Thus doth th' all-working Providence retain 
And keep for good effects the seed of worth ; 
And so doth point the steps of time thereby, 
In periods of uncertain certainty. 



339 & 331 PEARL STREET. 

1 853. 

Entered, according" to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand 
eight-hundred and fifty-three, by 

Harper & Brothers, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District 
of New York. 


" Two hundred years ! two hundred years ! 
How much of human power and pride, 
Of towering hopes, of trembling fears. 
Have sunk beneath their 'whelming tide !" 

In 1620 the first African slaves were brought to 
Virginia. In 1820 the first emancipated Africans 
were sent from the United States to Liberia. 

If a superior intelligence, while contemplating, 
from the serene heights of the mansions of the 
blessed, the movements, the tumults, and the aim- 
less activity of the inhabitants of the earth, had ob- 
served that one little ship taking its solitary way 
across the ocean, laden with emigrants returning, 
civilized and Christianized, to the land which, two 
centuries previous, their fathers had left degraded 
and idolatrous savages, would he not have thought 
that, of all the enterprises then absorbing the ener- 
gies and hopes of man, this, regarded by so large a 
portion of the few who were cognizant of it as a 
wild and hopeless venture, was the one which prom- 
ised to the human race the largest portion of ulti- 



mate good ? And who can doubt that, in thus pro- 
viding a home of refuge for " the stranger within 
her gates," our beloved Union was nobly, though si- 
lently, justifying herself from the aspersions of op- 
pression and wrong so often thrown out against her ? 

What other nation can point to a colony planted 
from such pure motives of charity ; nurtured by 
the counsels and exertions of its noblest, wisest, and 
most self-denying statesmen and philanthropists ; 
and sustained, from its feeble commencement up to 
a period of self-reliance and independence, from a 
pure love of justice and humanity ? 

The aim of this little book, imperfectly as it has 
been carried out, is to show the advantages Liberia 
offers to the African, who among us has no homj, 
no position, and no future. These advantages have 
not been exaggerated. The endeavor has been to 
present the unvarnished reality; to be as exact and 
accurate as possible, and rather to err by keeping 
within than going beyond the bounds of truth. 

For the few incidents in the history of Liberia 
that are mentioned, the writer is principally in- 
debted to the author of " The New Republic the 
little memoir of Lott Gary is taken from A Plea 
for Africa the accounts of the productions and 
climate of Liberia are derived from the most au- 
thentic sources. 

Philadelphia, June, 1853. 






It is a noble constancy you show- 
To this afflicted house ; that not like others, 
The friends of season, you do follow fortune. 
And in the winter of their fate, forsake 
The place, whose glories warmed you. 


The Peytons were among the earliest settlers and 
largest landholders in Virginia. Their plantation 
stretched along one of the southern branches of 
James River, called Rock Creek, although, but for 
the overshadowing of its grander neighbor, it might 
well have been dignified with the name of river, 
for there are many celebrated streams that are nei- 
ther so deep nor broad as that known simply as 
Rock Creek. 

The family mansion, a large, substantial stone 



building, with a piazza running entirely round it, 
was built some years before the province of Vir- 
ginia became a state, and its wide hall and wind- 
ing staircase of dark mahogany, its deep window- 
seats and broad fire-places remained unaltered, al- 
though here and there a few of the modern improve- 
ments or additions might be traced. It stood upon 
a hill once covered with a forest of cedars, but they 
had long since been cleared away, excepting a grove 
of them which clustered down one side of the hill 
and along the creek, and gave their name to the 
place. Cedar Hill was celebrated through all the 
country round for the hospitality, liberality, and true 
benevolence of its high-minded owners. They were 
the great people of that part of the world, and were 
sometimes called the royal family but few royal 
families can claim as much real respect and true 
homage as was rendered to the Peytons in the es- 
teem of all their neighbors. 

For the last few years the shadow of grief had 
been resting on Cedar Hill ; for first the head of 
the family, whom years had seemed only to mature 
and ennoble, and in whom no tr^ce of infirmity had 
yet appeared, was suddenly summoned away, and 
in the two following years Mrs. Peyton saw her 
eldest son lying in the fresh glory of his young 
manhood by his father's side, and her daughters 
husband, dear to her as her own children, was 


brought by his desolate widow to wait with the 
rest for the final resurrection. 

A gleam of sunshine had fallen on them when, a 
few months before the story opens, Charles, Mrs. 
Peyton's youngest child and only living son, had 
brought home a bride, a being who seemed the 
incarnation of hope and gladness. Bright, joyous, 
and restless, she shed the light of her happiness 
through every dark corner of that saddened house. 

It seemed to Mrs. Peyton that Virginia was a 
living blessing sent to cheer them after the great 
sorrow that had been crowded in the last few years ; 
and even her widowed daughter, Margaret Fairfax, 
felt the influence of the sunny nature Virginia was 
gifted with, and could better endure the mirth of 
her fatherless children, and watch with greater 
calmness the daily unfolding of the latest blossom 
of their love, on whom a father's eye had never 
rested, who had never known the great happiness 
of a father's love and care. 

But already that transient gleam had passed 
away, and for days and weeks Virginia had been 
the quiet, and sometimes, for hours, the almost mo- 
tionless tenant of a single room. Sitting by the 
bedside of her young husband, who was stricken 
by a slow fever before the moon which had shone 
upon their bridal had waned from the sky, she 
watched him with the intensity that could only be 



felt by one who was conscious that her all of earthly 
happmess was in imminent peril. There was but 
little that could be done for him — to moisten his 
parched lips, to bathe his fevered forehead or hands, 
to arrange his pillow, and give him from time to 
time a little refreshment or medicine, was all that 
he required ; but in these little offices Virginia jeal- 
ously refused all assistance, and, watching him night 
and day, slept only while he slept, and waked with 
his slightest motion. 

Her cheek soon lost its color and roundness, and 
her eye its light, but she persisted in saying that she 
was neither tired nor sleepy, and neither Mrs. Pey- 
ton nor Mrs. Fairfax could gain resolution enough 
to insist on her leaving her husband, while they 
felt how precious every moment that she had passed 
with him might soon become to her ; for the phy- 
sician had the day before announced to the family 
that there was but little, if any hope, of a favorable 
termination to his illness. It had been a long and 
exhausting one ; and, now that the fever was con- 
quered, or had worn itself out, he feared that there 
was not strength enough left in the patient for him 
to rally. 

Margaret had promised her brother, in the early 
part of his illness, that if there were any doubts of 
his recovery, she would inform him of it ; and leav- 
ing to Mrs. Peyton the sad task of acquainting Vir- 


ginia with the physician's opinion, she went to her 
brother's side to fulfill the promise she had made to 
him. It was a hard task she had to perform, but 
Margaret Fairfax was never known to shrink from 
any duty, or to put aside any cup her heavenly 
Father held to her lips. The whole family were 
accustomed to rely almost implicitly on her judg- 
ment in all times of difficulty, and Charles, who 
was some years younger than herself, regarded her 
with a degree of love and respect that might almost 
be called reverential. 

Her sad duty was performed with the greatest 
tenderness, and Charles, looking the thanks he was 
too weak to speak, whispered to her to read to him 
from the Psalms. 

After she had finished, he asked if Virginia knew 
his danger. 

I believe she does," replied Margaret; I left 
her with mother." 

Just then Virginia walked into the room, and the 
sad question was answered — a soul so despairing 
looked out of her deep eyes, and intense grief had 
given to the almost childish countenance, for she 
was but seventeen, such an expression of sternness 
and solemnity, that she seemed almost transformed. 
She bent over her husband, and pressed her pale 
lips to his forehead. 

^'Dearest," he feebly murmured, Margaret has 
A 2 



been reading to me ; but if you could, I would like 
your voice to be the last I shall hear on earth, if I 
must leave you so soon, Virginia.*' 

Margaret turned to the fourteenth chapter of St. 
John, and Virginia, as she read the blessed words, 
felt insensibly sooothed and comforted. Lulled by 
her sweet tones, Charles fell asleep. k.i first his 
sleep was troubled, and every few minutes he would 
open his eyes, and fix them on his young wife's face 
with an anxious, searching gaze ; but gradually he 
grew quieter ; and at last, when Virginia laid aside 
the Bible, she could not help imagining that his 
slumber w^as deeper and more natural than any he 
had enjoyed through his whole illness. She wanted' 
to* call Margaret or his mother, but refrained for 
fear of disturbing him. Occasionally they glanced 
into the room ; but seeing him asleep, and Virginia's 
face turned toward him with the paleness and al- 
most the immobility of a statue, they went silent- 
ly away, knowing that perfect quiet was the only 
medicine for the invalid in his present state of 

Thus passed away the night ; as the morning 
light was slowly breaking into the room, Charles 
opened his eyes ; in answer to Virginia's glance, 
which looked the question she could not speak, he 
said, I feel better, dearest; it seems to me that I 
must be much better ; but I am yet very weak." 


He spoke in a whisper, and Virginia had to bend 
low over him to catch his words ; but, faint as it was, 
a watchful ear outside had heard it, and the door 
was softly pushed open as a dark face thrust itself 
in and turned anxiously to the bed. Charles caught 
the earnest look and smiled in reply. The whole 
expression of the troubled countenance changed as 
if by magic, and then disappeared. 

''Keziah has gone for your gruel," said Virginia. 
Mast'r Charles is gwine to get well," said Keziah 
to the eager questioners in the kitchen ; I seed it 
in his face the very moment 1 opened the do' ; be- 
sides, I had a dream about him last night, and 
know'd as soon as I woke up he wouldn't die this 

What was your dream, aunt Keziah ?" asked 
half a dozen voices. 

Oh, go long, chillun, and don't speak another 
word to me ; don't you see I'm too glad to talk,, 
and I must make this gruel this very moment ; he's 
mighty weak, but he'll get well." 

Keziah was a privileged character in the kitchen 
and out of it. Few of her fellow-servants ever ven- 
tured to oppose her, and it would have been useless 
if they had been inclined to attempt it. To say 
that her will was iron, is to give but an inadequate 
idea of it, for its strength lay not only in passive 
resistance, but in active exertion, and so not an- 



other question was addressed to her by the chatter- 
ing group, all full of anxiety to hear about Mas'r 
Charles, and devoured by curiosity as to Keziah's 
dream. In grim silence, which certainly did not 
look much like gladness, the gruel was made, and 
most carefully arranged on a waiter. A little boy, 
who seemed to know what was expected of him, 
came running in from the garden with a freshly- 
gathered bunch of flowers. Throwing aside the 
gaudier ones, Keziah selected some English violets, 
a half- blown rose-bud, and some geranium leaves, 
and arranging them in a champagne glass, with a 
taste no one would have imagined lay hidden under 
such harsh features and an expression so forbidding, 
she placed the simple but fragrant bouquet on the 
waiter, and proceeded to the sick-room. 

For the first time since his illness, Charles ob- 
served the flowers, and with evident pleasure ; for 
the first time, too, he seemed to relish his breakfast. 
These symptoms of amendment could hardly have 
given greater pleasure to Virginia than they seemed 
to produce in Keziah. She strove in vain to retain 
her usual grim composure ; but the broad smile, 
which seldom appeared in Keziah's face, yet when 
it did, produced a general illumination in that abode 
of gloom and sternness, was now a fixture there for 
several minutes. 

" I wonder why the doctor does not come !" said 



Virginia; he said he would be here before this 

She was very anxious to see him, that he might 
encourage the hope newly sprung up in her heart ; 
her next thought was to impart her good tidings. 
Bidding Keziah remain, for the first time for many 
weeks she left the sick-room of her own free will, 
and hastened to find Mrs. Peyton. She met her in 
the hall ; and telling her as connectedly as she could 
that she thought, she hoped Charles would get 
well, he was so much better, and asking her to go 
and see if it w^ere not so, she flew in search of Mrs. 

The overseer, Mr. Burke, was with her, but Vir- 
ginia did not see him. "With an exclamation of 
^'Ohl sister Margaret !" she leaned her head upon 
Mrs. Fairfax's shoulder, and burst into tears. Mrs. 
Fairfax, who already seemed to have been agitated, 
terrified by Virginia's sudden appearance and great 
emotion, could hardly support herself. She sank 
upon a chair near her, and, with a voice hardly au- 
dible, asked, 

''What is it, Virginia? what have you to tell 
me ?" 

" Oh, he will get well — I know he will get well 
— he is so much better." 

With great difficulty, Mrs. Fairfax controlled her- 
self. She neither fainted nor wept, though she felt 



for a moment that if she could yield to her feel- 
ings, they would be more endurable ; but so much 
was depending on her, and there was a crisis full 
of such great terror before her, that she nerved her- 
self with all her strength to meet it. When Vir- 
ginia wiped away her tears, Margaret was smiling 
upon her, but it was a smile so tremulous and sad 
that she exclaimed, 

Do you think I am deceiving myself, sister 
Margaret ? Do you think it impossible that Charles 
should recover ?" 

" No, dear, I have never thought him so ill as 
Dr. Parker seemed to, though I did not say it, as I 
did not wish to excite false hopes ; I will come and 
see him directly." 

" What is the matter, sister Margaret ?" Mrs. 
Fairfax hesitated. With an air of impatient au- 
thority, Virginia turned to Mr. Burke. 

''Something is the matter — what is it, Mr. 

" Why, ma'am, they say the negroes are rising 
all through the country." 

'' It may be only a false rumor," suggested Mrs. 
Fairfax ; don't be alarmed, Virginia ; I will take 
some immediate measures to ascertain the truth." 

Virginia did not look in the least alarmed ; the 
blessed hope of her husband's recovery so predom- 
inated over every other feeling, that she could 



hardly dwell long enough on any other idea to real- 
ize it. 

" There must be some truth in the report," said 
Mr. Barke, ^'even if things are not so bad as I 
have heard ; for Dr. Parker stopped outside the big 
gate to tell me that he could not come here this 
morning, as he was taking his wife and all his fam- 
ily to Somerton ; he told me all the neighbors were 
going, and that, if you could, you ought to go too." 
But Charles can not be moved," said Virginia. 
So I told him, ma'am," replied Mr. Burke, 
^' and he seemed to feel very much troubled about 
it, and said that, as soon as his family were safe at 
Somerton, he would come back if he could, and see 
him ; but it is more than ten miles there, you know, 
and the rqads are very bad." 

Just then the hasty tramp of a horse was heard, 
and in a moment, without knocking, a young man 
walked hastily into the room. After the usual 
greeting, he said, 

" I have come, cousin Margaret, to take you and 
all the rest of the family to Somerton. My mother 
is waiting in the road for you. We knew cousin 
Charles was too ill to take care of you, and we could 
not go by without stopping to see about you." 

Charles is too weak to be moved, cousin Frank," 
replied Margaret, and we can not leave him, of 



In a case like this, when the danger is really so 
great, for \Ye have heard the most horrible rumors 
of deeds the nesrroes are committing all throns^h the 
county, and it is said they are marching on here in 
great force, don't you think it better to run the risk 
of injuring Charles, than that all your lives should 
be sacrificed ?" said Frank Lee. 

It would kill him to disturb him now,'' said 
Virginia, with an imploring gaze ; ''I am certain 
he could never bear that long, hard ride ; but you 
know we are not sure the negroes will come here, 
even if it is true that they have risen.'' 

Margaret agreed with Virginia that, to escape an 
uncertain danger, they ought not to sacrifice a life 
so precious to them, and that, in Charles's debilitated 
state, he could not endure any agitation or exertion. 

Frank Lee urged every argument in his power 
to induce them to join him. He said all the neigh- 
bors through the whole country were flocking to 
Somerton, and that they would be necessarily left 
alone for the present, till each one had seen that his 
immediate family were safe. He wished, at least, 
to take Mrs. Peyton with him ; but, on being in- 
formed of the circumstances, she resolutely refused 
to leave her son. Mrs. Fairfax hesitated about her 
children ; but her oldest son, a brave little boy of 
eleven, begged so hard not to be separated from her, 
that she told Frank Lee he need wait no longer — 


trusting themselves to Providence, they would live 
or die together. Frank left them most unwillingly, 
promising, if possible, to return the next day. 

They decided to keep Charles in ignorance of 
their situation, and Virginia returned to his sick- 
room. Something flurried or excited in her manner 
seemed to strike her husband, but he made no re- 
mark about it. 

All the active duty fell, as usual, upon Mrs. Fair- 

Can we depend upon you to remain with us, 
Mr. Burke V asked she. 

" Of course, ma'am, I would not leave you en- 
tirely unprotected, though I think it would have 
been better for you to have accepted Mr. Lee's 
offer ; it seems almost like tempting Providence to 
stay here." 

" We certainly have no right," said Mrs. Fairfax, 

to expect you to expose your life for us, and if you 
think the danger is so great, I hope you will not 
suppose it necessary to remain. One person can 
do but little in such a case, and — " 

" Oh, Mrs. Fairfax, do you think I could leave 
you now ; don't speak of it again, I beg of you," 
exclaimed Mr. Burke, vehemently. 

Mrs. Fairfax had trembled inwardly lest her pro- 
posal should be accepted ; for, though she had not 
wished to show it, for fear of inducing him to re- 



main against his inclinations, she could not help 
feeling that even one strong man was a great pro- 
tection and safeguard. 

It was settled, therefore, that the house should 
be shut up, excepting the front entrance, where 
Mr. Burke stationed himself to keep watch and 
ward. But it was no easy matter to fasten the 
house securely. The outside locks, and bars, and 
bolts on a Virginia house in those days were so lit- 
tle used, that, when needed, they were almost al- 
ways foand out of order. In this instance they 
succeeded tolerably until they came to the rooms 
that had been occupied by Charles before his mar- 
riao^e, and then even Mrs. Fairfax was oblis^ed to 
give up in despair. The negroes about the place, 
all in the state of the greatest excitement, were 
crowding about the house, talking, advising, and 
trying as well as they could to help Miss Margaret, 
whom they all looked upon with a feeling amount- 
ing to veneration. She selected some of the most 
trustworthy, and told them to guard certain points 
that were the least protected, and give her the 
earliest possible notice of the approach of those 
she dreaded so much to see. She called Nathan, 
one of the older and most trusted servants, a man 
who had been born and raised" in the family, and 
upon whose judgment and fidelity she felt she 
might rely, and told him to take his position on the 


top of the house, from where he could see far over 
the surroundmg country. 

You will stand by us, Nathan, will you not?" 
asked she. 

Till I die, Miss Margaret," he replied. 
The day wore away. The last rays of the sun 
fell on Nathan, patiently watching from the house- 
top — on the groups of negroes about the lawn, flit- 
ting and changing like the figures in a kaleidoscope 
— on the figure of a man on horseback, riding swift- 
ly along the highway to Somerton — and they lighted 
up with gleaming radiance the three monuments 
that rose like columns of snow from beneath the 
grand old cypress-tree at the foot of the garden. 

Mrs. Peyton stood at the window, looking in that 
direction, her favorite place of late years, and 
watched the pale, unearthly light that radiated from 
those memorials of the departed. Oh ! if I had 
wings like a dove, then would I flee away and be 
at rest," she softly murmured. An arm gently en- 
circled her, a stately form bent over and kissed her, 
and the mother and daughter stood in a silence full 
of eloquence, gazing on the spot where each had 
laid the strong arm on which they had leaned so 
trustingly, the courageous yet gentle heart, that 
would have shed its last drop of blood ere harm 
should come near them. 

Mr. Burke has gone, mother," said Margaret, 



calmly, after a few moments ; "the negroes brought 
so many tales, each one more dreadful than the 
other, that I suppose his courage gave way. He 
took Argyle, Charles's fastest horse, and is a mile 
or more on his way by this time ; he met Polydore, 
and sent him back to tell us." 

" Yes, missis," said an immense black man, full 
six feet and a half high, and large in proportion, 
but with a countenance as amiable and simple as a 
child's — " yes, missis, I was clar down by the big 
gate when Mas'r Burke came ridin' past, and he 
told me to come right straight to you, and tell you 
he was gwine for help ; he didn't think he should 
be back for some hours." 

No, he will never come back," said Margaret ; 
" I saw, some time ago, he was getting more and 
more alarmed." 

I seed Mas'r Burke a riding off," said uncle 
Nathan, putting his head in the door; but don't 
be frightened, Miss Margaret, nor ole missis either. 
I'll take his place at the door, and send one of de 
little niggers up on top of de house. No one shall 
harm either of you while I am alive." 

" I believe you," replied Mrs. Fairfax ; and both 
mother and daughter felt a sensation of security 
they had been strangers to before. Nathan's man- 
ner was so earnest and devoted, that they could as 
soon doubt themselves as him. 


I am afraid, mother, we shall have to tell 
Charles om* situation. He hears the commotion out- 
side the house, which I can not prevent, and the lit- 
tle bustle within, so unlike our usual stillness late- 
ly, and he has been insisting on knowing the cause. 
I dread to tell him, for any agitation must be so 
injurious to him now I" 

AVhile they were consulting as to what had best 
be done, a message came from Virginia, begging 
them to come to Charles, who was insisting on be- 
ing dressed. They hastened to him, and found 
that he had partly guessed and partly discovered, 
by questioning adroitly his young wife, the alarm- 
ing state of affairs. He insisted on going with 
them to Somerton. No arguments nor entreaties 
were effectual in changing his resolution. He 
thought only of their danger, and would not admit 
that there was any to himself. 

By this time night had come on, cold, dark, and 
starless. Margaret drew aside the curtain, and 
showed him the thick darkness that seemed to en- 
compass them. She reminded him of the wretched 
roads, and of their doubly defenseless state if met 
by the armed negroes on the way at night. 

" Wait only till morning," said she, ^' and we 
will do whatever you wish. If we only considered 
ourselves, and not you, we should be safer here, I 
think, to-night. There is not a servant on the 



plantation who does not seem anxious to prove his 
fidelity, and Nathan is a host ; Polydore has found 
a gun, and is marching up and down before the 
door, just as he saw the soldiers keep guard at fa- 
ther's tent during the last war.'' 

If I had only known this in the mornino^," said 
Charles, ^' you would all have been safe now !*' and 
his eye passed sadly over his wife, and mother, and 
sister, who returned his* glance with looks of calm- 
ness and assurance, that sadly belied their fainting 

" Ah I you can't deceive me," he continued, 
smiling sorrowfully. You are not so brave as you to make me believe. I know very well that, 
if I were not lying helpless here, you would all be 
trembling, and crying, and clinging to me, especial- 
ly you. you simple little deceiver," turning to his 
wife, whose lips trembled, but who could not tru."<t 
herself to speak. 

" Margaret," he went on slowly and with diffi- 
culty, you have thought too much of me; think 
now of yourself, of your boys, our precious mother, 
and my wife. If you really think that it would be 
safer for them to wait till morning, I will consent ; 
for m.yself, I feel that the delay would be harder to 
bear than any exertion." 

They decided to wait till dawn. A sleepless 
night was passed amid frequent but groundless 



alarms. The least noise sent all the little negroes 
flymg to the house with tidings of the approach of 
the enemy ; but the gray dawn came slowly on, 
and no destroyer's foot had yet trodden the path to 
Cedar Hill. 

There was great bustle and confusion around it. 
The carriage-house, with all it contained, had been 
burned just before Charles's illness, and no one had 
thought yet of replacing their loss ; so a large cov- 
ered wagon stood before the door, in which Keziah 
was carefully arranging a bed. As soon as it was 
ready, Charles, partly dressed and partly enveloped 
in a wrapper, was brought down by Polydore and 
laid upon it. He fainted from over-exertion and 
excitement as his head touched the pillow, and it 
was some time before he revived. Virginia took 
her seat by him, supporting him to prevent him 
from receiving too rude a jar in their progress. 
Then Mrs. Peyton, Margaret, her two youngest 
boys, and their nurse joined them. 

Nearly all the negro men, and many of the boys, 
were assembled in a group on the lawn, and Nathan 
was marshalling them in battle array. Such arms 
as he had, he had distributed to the most efficient 
of them ; the rest he had told to look out for them- 
selves, and, consequently, pitchforks, hoes, and rails 
figured largely among their hastily-collected weap- 



^'What's dat you have dar. Orful?-' asked Na- 
than of a boy. ^Yhose real name of Lord Orville, 
given to him by some novel-reading damsel, was 
changed to Orful by his companions. 

Tongs, uncle Xathan. and Peter he has de shovel 
— couldn't find nothin* else, you see." 

"••Oh. go 'long, you didn't look; you niggers are 
too lazy for any thing. Take your place there at 
de tail of de line ; you hear 

"With great difficulty Nathan arranged the curi- 
ous assemblage in two lines — one to walk on each 
side of the wagon. Polydore was to march at the 
head of one column, while Nathan took command 
of the other, and snperintendence of the whole. 
Philip Fairfax, mounted on a spirited pony, with 
some difficulty reined it in that he might keep by 
Polydore's side, into whose charge he had been es- 
pecially given, for between these two a most de- 
voted attachment existed, that dated from Philip's 
babyhood. It began by his always preferring to be 
carried about, during a long period of great feeble- 
ness, by Polydore's stalwart arm, and then, as he de- 
veloped into a sprightly, intellectual child, he never 
felt that he had half enjoyed any fairy story, or tale 
of giants and magicians, till he had related them to 
his patient listener, and heard his exclamations of 
wonder. The only fault Polydore had in Philip's 
eyes was an unfortunate facility in going to sleep, 


and often he would have to be waked up in the 
most interesting part of the story, and kept awake 
by the most energetic means till it was finished. 
Since Philip had left off fairy stories, and taken to 
history and mythology, this propensity had greatly 

^'Laws, now, Mas'r Phil,-' Polydore would say^ 
" I only shets my eyes to hear better, you see.'' 
But five minutes after he had uttered this justifica- 
tion, he gave such convincing evidence of the depth 
of his slumbers, that even Philip could not doubt 
their reality. He had been trying to teach Poly- 
dore to read for the last two or tln-ee years, and to 
see the intense earnestness vfith which one threw 
his whole soul into the work, and the easy compla- 
cency with w^hich the other gave himself up to be 
instructed, would have amused any one. 

But now Philip's mania for instruction was for- 
gotten, and he rode silently by Polydore's side, whose 
heavy tramp kept steadily up Vv'ith the pony's dainty 
prancings, and who, with eyes glancing with unu- 
sual restlessness, and lips closed with strange firm- 
ness, was mentally resolving, at the first alarm, to 
catch Philip in his arms and escape to the woods 
with him ; for Mas'r Phil was his idol ; he loved 
him as well, perhaps better, than any one in the 
world. A native African, and separated from all 
his own family, he had but few else to love, al- 



though for Keziah he cherished an attachment as 
yet unrequited. In fact, it had but once burst the 
bonds of silence, and then was received \Yith such 
an energetic Shut up I I don't Avant to yer none of 
yer nonsense I'- that the poor Polydore had since 
worshiped in the sleepy depths of his soul. 

At last the cavalcade was ia order. The wagon 
moved slowly through the heavy roads, and ISathan^ 
riding at the head of the troop, looked with no small 
satisfaction on the train he had managed to bring 
into something like marching order. Suddenly an 
expression of vexation appeared on his face ; the 
light from a blazing pine knot, held by one of the 
impromptu guard, had fallen on a yellow turban 
that was resolutely forcing its way through the 
crowd, throwing all into confusion as it passed. 

''Dat's Keziah — I knowed she'd be coming," 
muttered sN'athan ; and, in truth, at that moment 
Keziah's gaunt figure and grim face appeared, un- 
moved by all the commotion she had left behind 

''Go right straight back, Keziah," uttered Na- 
than, in a commanding voice ; ^' we don't want no 
women folks." 

''You attend to your own niggers, and I'll take 
care of myself," was the curt and decisive reply. 

Nathan was no# a man who readily gave up what 
he intended to do, and therefore, from his not insist- 


ing on obedience from Keziah, it may be inferred 
he knew the hopelessness of the undertaking. 

Keziah had good cause for all the gratitude and 
devotion her conduct displayed. Ill treated from 
her earliest infancy, first by an unfeeling mother, 
whose punishments were all so many ingenious tor- 
tures, and who had twice been prevented by her 
master from killing her own child, having hung her 
up once with her head down, and at another time 
being caught dashing her up and down against a 
pile of bricks ; afterward falling under the power 
of a harsh and capricious owner, who, with a dim 
perception of her capabilities, and vexed at not know- 
ing how to avail himself of them, determined, as he 
said, ^*to beat her sulkiness out of her." 

He could not have chosen a worse course. 

Every Aveek Keziah grew more obstinate, per- 
verse, and sulky ; at times a strange fire gleamed 
in her eyes, like that which may be seen in a new- 
ly-encaged wild beast ; and if the mutterings of her 
restless lips could have been understood, she would 
have been guarded like some savage animal. The 
fell purposes she was nurturing in a soul tortured 
by desolation and cruelty into crime had not yet 
matured themselves into action, when, providential- 
ly, her whole life was changed, and with it, as if by 
magic, her character developed itself in feelings and 
acts before strange to her heart. As some deep val- 



ley, made damp and unwholesome from the dark 
shade of the overhanging trees, leaps into beauty 
and freshness when the sun's rays fall unobstructed 
upon it, so great and entire a transformation did 
happiness produce in Keziah. 

Charles, when a mere boy, was sent by his father 
to Keziah's master on an errand. As he was leav- 
ing, she crossed his path, returning to the quarter 
after one of the severest punishments she had ever 
received. Every nerve thrilling with agony, she 
walked with difficulty. Charles could not help per- 
ceiving that something was the matter. His look 
fell compassionately on her. She raised her eyes, 
full of a dumb yet fierce despair, and met his kind 
glance. A sudden impulse seemed to tell her that 
here lay her only chance of salvation for this world 
or the next. Moved by an irresistible impulse, 
which she always declared came, not from herself, 
but the Lord, she stood for a moment, and, stretch- 
ing out her trembling hands, exclaimed, 
Mas'r Charles, will you buy me ?" 

The words were few, but the attitude and man- 
ner were so imploring, so full of entreaty, that 
Charles, with a heart full of generous and kind feel- 
ing, could not withstand it. 

''Yes, Keziah, I vrill," he replied, and rode off. 

All the way home, his thoughts were dwelling 
upon his promise and upon the means of fulfilling 



it. He felt that he had done wrong in having made 
it unconditionally, but since it had been given, and 
given to one so helpless, every high and honorable 
feeling in his boyish heart forbade him to retract, or 
even to repent of it. 

He informed his father of what he had rashly 
bound himself to do. 

''As it is your own promise, my son, and made 
without consulting me, you must suffer the conse- 
quences yourself." 

''Yes, sir." 

" There is that new horse I promised you when 
you were fifteen, and your birth-day comes next 
month, I believe." 

"Yes, sir." 

" And the rifle your brother intended to give 

"Yes, sir." 

"And the watch your mother has sent to En- 
gland for for you." 
"Yes, sir." 

"If you give up these, I can let you have the 
money to do as you please with it." 

Charles had had little opportunity in his life to 
cultivate the Spartan virtue of self-denial, the cor- 
ner-stone of so much that is noble and elevated, and 
even his generosity was put to the proof, as all these 
long-desired possessions were slipping from his 



grasp. " He that sweareth unto his neighbor, and 
disappointeth him not, though it were to his own 
hinderance," rose in his mind, as if some guardian 
angel were whispering it there. 

Yes, father, I must do it, for I promised Keziah; 
besides, I can do very well with old Roanoke and 
my gun ; the watch is the hardest thing to give 
up," and Charles sighed. 

^^Do as you think right, my son," said Mr. Pey- 

Could you go over to Mr. Carpenter's to-night, 
father ?" 

''No; but I will go to-morrow." 

And, in due time, a miserable-looking figure, bare- 
footed, and with but one poor garment and no bun- 
dle, stood in the broad gravel- walk leading to Mr. 
Peyton's front door. 

There, Charles, is your purchase," said he, smil- 
ing. Gro tell her where she is to stay." 

Charles led the way across a broad lawn sloping 
gently down, then through a grove of trees careful- 
ly cleared of underbrush, and then, winding his way 
among a cluster of whitewashed cabins, he came to 
one a little larger and more carefully built than the 
rest. An idiot boy was basking in the sun before 
the door; within, an aged, infirm, but happy-look- 
ing woman lay in the bed. 

'' This is Mammy Katy's cabin," said Charles ; 



she nursed us all ; but she has been bed-ridden 
for the last ten years, and now we nurse her. You 
are to stay here for the present. You need not go 
to work in the field till you are quite well;" for Ke- 
ziah's languid step and heavy eye showed clearly 
that she had not yet recovered from her severe pun- 

Fortunately, the management of Keziah was left 
entirely to Charles. She had learned his sacrifices 
for her, and her devotion to him knew no bounds. 
She begged to be allowed to wait upon him and at- 
tend to his wardrobe. Her uncouth figure and 
coarse hands seemed but ill fitted for any in-door 
work, especially the needle, but no shirts could 
have been more neatly stitched or elaborately made 
than Charles's. The work she put upon one would 
have made three in the ordinary way. 

Her habits were peculiar. It was asserted for a 
long time that she never slept nor ate. But Charles, 
having investigated the matter, discovered that her 
only meal was a late but very substantial supper, 
and that she slept on the stairs, or threw herself, 
with no covering nor bed, on the floor in the pas- 
sage leading to his room, or, if any one in the fam- 
ily were ill, near their door, so that, at the slightest 
noise, she was up and wide awake, to render any 
service that might be required. 

It was almost wonderful to see into how much 



responsibility and trust Keziah. had gradually work- 
ed herself, and her influence over the other serv- 
ants was hardly less than that of the master or 
mistress. IXathan was almost the only one who did 
not stand somewhat in avre of her, and even he nev- 
er ventured to thwart her when she was bent on 
any object. 

So, much to Nathan's discomfiture, Keziah, grasp- 
ing the handle of a well-sharpened carving-knife, 
the blade of which was hidden in her dress, headed 
the march ; and doubtless, if she had been put to 
the proof, her yellow turban would have been, like 
Henry the Fourth's white plume, a guide to the 
hx. ttest of the fray. 

The morning light came slowly on. At every 
breath of clear, bracing air, Charles felt renewed 
vigor, and, ordering the covering of the wagon to 
be put back, he lay gazing out on the earth and 
glowing sky he had never thought to see again but 
with spiritual eyes, and felt that he could almost 
realize the emotions of the widow's son, as, at the 
gate of Xain, he rose and looked around on the 
crowd whose mourning was changed into wonder, 
and on Him whose heart was ever open to our sor- 
rows, and touched with a feeling for our infirmities. 

He felt so tranquil in his helplessness, so full of 
trustfulness and hope. when, having no power to do 
any thing for himself, he had placed himself, and all 


those who were dear to him, in the keeping of Him 
who is mighty to save, that he had no room in his 
heart for fear. Repeating aloud David's speech, 

The Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the 
lion, and out of the paw of the bear. He will deliver 
me out of the hand of the Philistine." ^'Do you 
remember, mother," he continued, " reading that to 
me when I was a little boy, and how much I liked 
it, and repeated it so often that father and brother 
Hamilton called me ' little David' for a long time." 

His mother smiled sadly, and whispered to him 
not to talk, for it might disturb Virginia. 

There was little danger of that, for she had fallen 
into a sleep of perfect exhaustion, and her slumber 
was so profound that Charles was at first alarmed, 
so like death were her pale cheeks, her eyes sunk- 
en with long watching and tears, and her lips light- 
ly parted, through which, so gently did her bosom 
heave, no breath seemed to come. 

He turned from his young wife to his mother and 
sister, and saw, in the cold, truth-telling light of the 
morning, lines of care and sorrow that had been 
newly traced in the last few weeks. A feeling of 
passionate love for them — love that would have held 
life cheap if his death could shield them from one 
pang or fear, mingled with a conviction of his great 
weakness, swelled his heart almost to bursting. 

Turning for consolation to the sky, that whisper- 
B 2 



ed to him of all-embracing love, and tlie green earth, 
that murmured in its thousand voices lessons of 
hope and faith, his eyes fell on the rude guard that 
marched steadily by the side of the wagon. In 
whatever direction he looked, he met only glances 
of affection and encouragement. Different voices, 
all familiar to his ear from childhood, called out to 
bid him, in their untutored but heartfelt words, to 
be of good cheer, they would defend him with their 
lives. He thanked them by a look, and, leaning 
back on his pillow, fell into a train of earnest 

"What had he done for these men, that they should 
devote their lives so willingly to him and his ? His 
parents had been faithful to the great responsibility 
they took up with their lives, his sister was untiring 
in her efforts for the improvement and education of 
her family, but beyond a general feeling of kindness 
and interest, he could recall nothing that would ac- 
count for such fidelity. Excepting in the case of 
Keziah, he could remember no instance of self-de- 
nial that could excite their gratitude. 

''Hereafter, if G-6d spares my life, it shall not be 
so," thought he; ''I am rich — as far as this world 
is concerned ; I have nothing to strive for — my lines 
are cast to me in pleasant places — I will devote 
my life to them who are now so willing to offer 
theirs for me. I will make it my chief object to 


see how best to promote their interest and advan- 
tage, and may God help me to a right decision." 

With a few words of earnest prayer, he looked 
again on the dark throng around him, letting his 
eyes rest on each face, that he might impress it, 
with his vow, on his m.emory. One of them step- 
ped close to the wagon, and in a whispered voice 

Please, Mas'r Charles, would it 'sturb Miss Vir- 
ginia if we sung a little ? We can hold out so much 
better if Vv^e can sing." 

^'No, a cannon would hardly disturb her now," 
replied he; ^'sing, if you wish to." 

And the voices of the motley crowd rose in sin- 
gular harmony in the clear morning air. The most 
delicate ear would have been puzzled to detect a 
false note, no matter how varied or intricate the 
tune might be. The songs they sung were prin- 
cipally the joyous and triumphant hymns heard 
only at a Methodist camp-meeting, and especially 
suited to encourage and animate persons in doubt- 
ful or hazardous situations. 

Keziah was indignant at this interruption to the 
stillness that had prevailed. In angry tones she de- 
manded silence, but in vain. 

Mas'r said we might sing," shouted Orful, from 
the farther extremity of the line. 

Mas'r Charles said so," echoed Peter. 



'^^eziah," said Charles. 

The faint whisper of that voice reached the ear to 
which it was addressed through the confused mur- 
muring around. Her great love seemed to quicken 
all her senses. In a moment the yellow turban was 
stretched over the side of the wagon, that Charles 
might communicate his wishes with the least pos- 
sible exertion. 

" You know this is the only road till we reach 
Derrick's cross-roads, four miles off. So, unless the 
people are already on their wdty toward us, they can 
not hear us ; if they are, no noise can harm us. It 
cheers me to hear them sing." 

Sing away, boys," said Keziah, with a conde- 
scending nod ; and again the strange harmony rose 
in the air. Even the horses seemed to feel the in- 
spiriting power of the music, and moved more rap- 

The favorite melody of The old Ship of Zion" 
was just commenced, when a trampling of many 
horses was heard. A silence full of horror and 
dread fell over those in the wagon. Charles grasp- 
ed his mother's hand, and threw himself over the 
unconscious Virginia, as if to shield her with his 
body — it was all he could do. Margaret clasped 
her infant closer to her breast, and threw her arm 
around her little Harry. She cast a glance of agony 
on Philip, whose boyish face was the calmest there. 


" I am not frightened, mother — don't think of 
me," said he, in reply to her look. 

Polydore, take care of him," exclaimed Mrs 

''Yes, Miss Margaret, I will," was ibhe reply. 

These were the only words spoken. Keziah 
strided on far in advance of the rest, and, if it should 
prove to be the enemy approaching, woe to the first 
man that should cross her path. No womanish 
fears, no feminine tenderness was in her heart, but 
the fierceness and pitilessness of a lioness fighting 
for her young. 

Nearer and nearer came the sound of hurrying 
hoofs, and, as all strained their eyes to catch the 
first glimpse of the approaching crowd, each heart 
grew stiller and more resolute, excepting that beat- 
ing in the breast of the young Lord Orville, who, 
shaming his illustrious name, stood trembling fear- 
fully, while the tongs clattered in sympathy in his 
hands. At last he fairly turned, and, fleeing for 
safety, hid himself behind the trunk of some fallen 
monarch of the forest. Peter, with uplifted shovel, 
looked in supreme contempt on the base flight of 
his whilome companion in arms. 

'' Hi ! I allers know'd he no count," said he, and 
stretched his short neck to see what was coming. 

Oh, glory ! glory ! if it ain't Mas'r Frank and 
all de rest on 'em." 



Orfal heard the shout, and, peering over his ram- 
part, saw, to his great relief, a cro\Yd of the young 
men of the surrounding country, who, having at- 
tended to the safety of their own families, were on 
their way to escort the defenseless inhabitants of 
Cedar Hill to Somerton. 

Learning that all was quiet in the neighborhood, 
and that the threatened disturbance had nearly 
passed over, Charles dismissed his faithful defend- 
ers with earnest expressions of thankfulness, and 
left them to return home under the guidance of Na- 
than, while the family pursued their way to Som- 
erton, to wait there for a more settled state of secu- 
rity, and to give Charles the repose he needed after 
so much excitement. Keziah accompanied the fam- 
ily, being unwilling to trust her young master to 
other hands until he was quite recovered. 




Oft expectation fails, and most oft there 
Where most it promises. 


The Peytons remained in Somerton about two 
weeks. The excitement which the necessity for 
exertion had produced in Charles, seemed to have 
a wonderfully favorable effect in enabling him to 
throw off, with much more facility than would 
have been possible under other circumstances, the 
languor produced by the long and debilitating 

Obliged by the necessity of the case to leave 
their large plantation with no overseer but Nathan, 
and he having been hastily intrusted with the office 
with no direction but the general one, to keep every 
thing in as good order as he could, Mrs. Fairfax 
dreaded the return. 

" We must expect to find the greatest confusion," 
said she, as they were on their way back to Cedar 
Hill. The servants seem to have looked on this 



time as a kind of Saturnalia, and to have done 
whatever they pleased. Dr. Parker's family found 
their store-room and smoke-house completely emp- 
tied of their contents, and Mr. Carpenter, Keziah's 
old master, you know, found every article of furni- 
ture or clothing he had left in his house had either 
been stolen or spoiled. Mrs. Carpenter, poor old 
lady, was more distressed at the appearance of her 
floors than any thing else. It was the labor of her 
life to keep them well- waxed and bright, and they 
were so cut and marked that it will take weeks of 
hard rubbing to make them look decently. I have 
not seen Keziah so pleased since you recovered as 
she was when she told me about it, for those floors 
had been a source of torment to her for years. She 
told me that there was not one in the whole house 
that had not caused her a whipping." 

" When mother told her she ought not to rejoice 
over others' niisfortunes," said Virginia, " she said, 
' I know that, missis ; but I've not got clar of de 
ole man yet ; I has tough fights with him some- 
times, and dis time he's got the upper hand. I's 
glad in my heart, I is ;' and she laughs whenever 
she thinks of it." 

^'How did the Lees find their place?" asked 

That was kept in very good order," replied 
Mrs.- Fairfax, ^' for the overseer remained there. 


He said he had lived with them more than twenty 
years, and would not leave them at a time when 
they most needed him. But Frank did not know 
that he intended to stay, or he would not have con- 
sented to it ; he expected him to follow them almost 

" Well, if the old house is left standing," said 
Charles, I don't think we have any cause for 

Complaint, no !" exclaimed Margaret ; when 
I recall the feelings with which I last passed over 
this road, and my sensations now, I can hardly 
realize my happiness." 

Virginia had caught a glimpse of the white- 
covered wagon, which, laden with groceries for the 
family, toiled slowly after the carriage, and inter- 
rupting the flow of reminiscences, that were as yet 
too painful for her to dwell upon, she broke forth 
into the Old Ship of Zion." After doing full jus- 
tice to as much of it as she knew, she amused her- 
self and her more thoughtful companions by singing 
little snatches of all the songs she could recall, 
until she was stopped in the midst of Home, 
sweet Home !" by the opening of the big gate. 

How dy, Polydore?" said Charles to that ser- 
vant, who was busy cutting down a lightning- 
struck tree near the carriage road. 

''How dy, Mas'r Charles?" replied Polydore, 



coming forward quickly to shake hands ; I'm 
mighty glad to see you again, and Miss Margaret, 
and the chilluns, and ole missis, and Miss Virgmny 
too," shaking hands with each one. 

I've got a new Bible, with big print, for you, 
uncle Polydore," called out Philip from his seat by 
the coachman. 

Thank you, Mas'r Phil," said Polydore, with a 
look of intense delight. 

How are things going on about the place ?" 
asked Charles. 

Couldn't be better," was the reply. Nathan's 
'bout the best driver I seen in all my life. He 
makes the niggers stan' roun' like dey was sent 

Have you heard any thing of Mr. Burke ?" 
asked Mrs. Fairfax. 

Yes, Miss Margaret, dey say he so 'flicted with 
havin' been took so by sprise, and flyin' off dat er 
way, dat he's gone clar off, whar he come from. I 
reckon we sha'n't see him no more." 

From the roadside gate to the house was a dis- 
tance of about half a mile, and when the arrival 
of the family was made known, in that mysterious 
way by which all news travels, the progress of the 
carriage was greatly impeded by the troops of busy 
idlers who flocked around to welcome them back. 

At length the coachman succeeded in bringing 



his horses harmlessly through the swarm of little 
negroes, who had seemed bent on immolating them- 
selves in the triumphant progress of the family," 
as their kindred spirits throw themselves beneath 
the rolling wheels of the car of Juggernaut, and, 
having surmounted the last gentle slope, the old 
mansion arose before them in the massive homeli- 
ness so dear and familiar to their eyes. 

" See how fast aunt xlbby is walking," said Vir- 
ginia ; ''I thought she was entirely too dignified 
ever to hurry about in that way," as the short, 
rotund figure of the old housekeeper appeared on 
the piazza, giving directions and uttering exclama- 
tions of joy at once. 

^'You, Peter, tote some light 'ud in the dinin'- 
room, this minute. I'd ha' been all ready, missis, 
but I didn't spect you till to-morrow. Ben, run 
and tell Apphia I'm comin' to give out supper 
directly. Oh, Miss Margret, I'se so glad to see 
you, and the chillun too I Bless 'em all I" and she 
kissed them heartily. 

Keziah now came up, having alighted from the 
wagon, and, by the aid of her general efficiency, 
fues were soon lighted in the different rooms, and 
an abundant supper — a Virginia supper — prepared 
for the once more happy family. 

In going over the house, and examining it thor- 
oughly the next day, Mrs. Fairfax was astonished 



and delighted to find every thing left untouched, 
except by aunt Abby's careful hands. 

Before her promotion to the office of housekeeper, 
Abby had been the especial attendant of Mrs. Pey- 
ton, who, when she became too stout, and burdened 
with the w^eight of too many years, to move 'as 
readily as she had once done, showed her opinion 
of her integrity by giving all the keys of the house 
into her care. 

''Why, aunt Abby," said Mrs. Fairfax, ''how 
did you manage to keep every thing so safe ?" 

" I jes' lock all the do's. Miss Margaret, and I 
ses, nobody but me and Nathan is to come about 
the place. Dey all wanted to come and help me 
put every thing straight, but I ses no ; I don't 
want none of your help. I knows what I am, but 
I don't know what you are ; so get away with you. 
And Nathan, he's kep 'em right tight to work. But, 
bless your heart, Miss Margaret, dey didn't need no 
keeping ; dey never worked half so well in all dere 

Charles found that this assertion w^as true. He 
accounted for it — not by fhe idea that his servants 
were better than those on some of the neighboring 
plantations, wdio had showed themselves unworthy 
of trust, nor by the flattering thought that more 
indulgent treatment than they received elsewhere 
had awakened more noble qualities, for there were 


many planters around, who held the reins of disci- 
pline with a looser grasp, and whose easy tempers 
led them to pass unnoticed over faults that Mr. 
Peyton would have punished severely ; but their 
religious training was more carefully attended to 
than usual, and besides, the principal ones among 
them were, without exception, persons of tried in- 
tegrity, fidelity, and Christian principle. There is 
nowhere a more sympathetic or imitative race than 
the African, and by working skillfully on their feel- 
ings, Nathan, who possessed something of the ^'wis- 
dom of the serpent," had contrived, with little diffi- 
culty, to induce each one to perform voluntarily his 
daily task. 

As soon as things had fallen into their usual rou- 
tine, Charles began to reflect upon the best means 
to repay the debt of gratitude he owed to his de- 
pendents, and, at the same time, to fulfill his vow. 
He consulted his sister about it. 

" There are some to whom I must give their 
freedom," said he; ^'I should as soon think of 
keeping my own brother in unwilling bondage, as 
those to whom we owe so much. But what shall 
I do with them or for them afterward ? The best 
plan I can think of is to place them on a farm. I 
have some very valuable land lying on Rocky Run, 
about three miles from here. I think I might 
manage to settle at least ten of them on it, with a 



prospect of making a comfortable subsistence, if 
they are only industrious.'' 

*• A very important if," said Margaret Fairfax. 
Judging by the free negi'oes we see around us, 
the probabilities are that they will degenerate from 
honest, faithful servants, into idle, degraded, and 
worthless men. a burden and a nuisance to every 
respectable person near them." 

''If I thought that, of course it would prove an 
insuperable objection to my project ; but how can 
I believe that a man who has stood the test of the 
ordeal through which iS"athan, and Stephen, and 
Polydore, and many others of our servants have 
passed — not only this last trial of their fidelity, but 
the countless temptations they must meet each 
day — should become like those who have grown 
up in ignorance and idleness ? I can not imagine 
that they would ever become a burden, much less 
an injury to society.-' 

'• They may not, brother,'* said Margaret; but 
who shall answer for their descendants ? Many of 
those we see around us received their freedom as a 
reward for their good conduct ; and if they have 
not degenerated, is there an instance where even 
that could be said of their children V' 

'•Yes, Margaret, I think there is,'' said Charles; 
and after a few moments of thought, he mentioned 
two or three who had vindicated their claim to the 


title of freemen by their industry and upright- 

Is there any other way I could take, my dear 
sister," continued he, ''to elevate my people to the 
position in which I wish to see them placed ?" 

At that time Liberia was unthought of, or existed 
only in the minds of those far-sighted enthusiasts 
to whom it owes its commencement. The ques- 
tion perplexed Mrs. Fairfax, so that she remained 
for some time without replying. 

There certainly ought to be some other course 
open in such a case as this — some way not only to 
free our negroes, but to place them in a situation 
where the superior position and cultivation of the 
whites will not react upon them, so as to deprive 
them of the hope, and, with it, of the wish to ele- 
vate themselves ; but, I confess, I do not see any 
other. What do you say to sending them to the 
free states ?" 

'' I have thought of that ; but, besides the climate 
being so ill adapted to them, they are not regard- 
ed there with the same kindness and toleration as 
with us. The tie that unites us to them — the only 
possible tie, it seems to me, between the two racesj 
has taught us to regard their necessities as our pecu- 
liar care. We are so familiar with their habits of 
improvidence and indolence, that it does not strike 
us with the same feelings of surprise and contempt 



tiiat it does the thrifty Uforthemers. Besides, I 
would like to keep my people near me. After they 
have been taken care of by our family so long. I 
would not like to have them suffer, even by their 
own fault. We hear of a great deal of suffering in 
those Northern ciries, especially among the negroes.'' 

Yesj that is true." replied Mrs. Fairfax : " that 
I know from observation. You remember my tak- 
ing mammy Betty to New York with me, when 
Philip was a baby, and that she was persuaded to 
leave me- I remained in the city several months, 
and heard nothing of her. Indeed, I never expected 
to see her again ; but one day I received a message, 
imploring me to come to her. I shall never forget 
the horror and misery of the places through which 
3Ir. Fairfax and I had to pass in order to reach 
her room. We found her sick, and almost starving, 
and pure pity, if nothing eke, would have forced 
us to take her back with us. Poor mammy can 
never bear to hear of the ^big norrard^ since. To 
be sure, that is only a single instance ; but I have 
heard of many others." 

We hear of them, and see them constantly at 
the North. No, Margaret, I have great hopes that 
I shall be successful in this plan ; and if I am, I 
know many other planters who will follow my ex- 
ample, for there are but few that are not troubled 
by the present state of our relations to our servants 


And when the slaves see that by their good conduct 
they may hope to attain freedom and respectability, 
who can tell how great a stimulus the prospect will 
be to them ?" 

Mr. Peyton was generally distinguished by great 
calmness and coolness of judgment ; but the warmth 
and earnestness with which he entered into this 
project for repaying the great debt he owed his 
bondmen, kindled a degree of enthusiasm in his 
heart that made him set aside all doubts and mis- 
givings as unworthy his design, and the people who 
were to carry it into execution. 

" I am working with pure heart and hands," 
thought he, and it seems impossible that I should 
fail ; but if I do, it shall not dishearten me." 

When Nathan was informed that his master 
intended to bestow upon him and all his family 
the great gift of freedom, together with enough 
land to render him independent, partly in recom- 
pense for his past services, and partly, Mr. Peyton 
said, that the neighborhood might have no cause 
to complain that he had thrown his people upon 
them for support, he could hardly believe the good 

He hastened to impart them to his wife, but 
soon returned with a more anxious face than he 
had often been known to wear. 

My ole woman say, masT, how will Junius do 



'bout his learnin' ? He's mighty fond of books, and 
would be a preacher one of these days, if he can 
go on. He's been studyin' Latin, and Grreek, and 
Hebrew, and I don't know what else, with Mas'r 
Philip's tutorer, and he say he's the best scholar 
he has had for a long time. But if he has to work 
on a farm, he must give up studyin'." 

Mr. Peyton knew that Junius was a boy of un- 
common abilities, and he had given the tutor per- 
mission to teach him, but he had no idea he was 
so far advanced. 

" I will see Junius myself, Nathan," replied Mr, 
Peyton, ''and if I find him so good a scholar as you 
say, I will do the best I can for him." 

For Mr. Peyton to promise was almost the same 
that it is for other people to perform, so Nathan 
went away quite satisfied. 

Mr. Peyton found that Nathan had not exagger- 
ated about his son, but that the acquirements of 
Junius were so great as to appear wonderful when 
compared with his slender advantages. He was 
never more perplexed. ''What shall I do with 
Junius," thought he, " if, by my connivance, he 
fulfills the promise of his boyhood, and becomes a 
learned man ? What position in America can he 
occupy?" Then the question arose, "Is it right 
to stifle the yearnings for knowledge in any human 
soul, particularly when the knowledge can be ob- 


tained without the violation of any duty?" Every 
feeling in Mr. Peyton's generous heart said no. 

Tt was then resolved that Junius, freed with the 
rest of the family, should remain with Mr. Peyton, 
and, fulfilling the duties of his position, that of as- 
sistant waiter, he might devote the rest of his time 
to the improvement of his mind, with all the assist- 
ance he could obtain from the tutor or Mr. Peyton's 

Essex, an old family servant, the head waiter 
and butler, was next informed by his master of the 
happiness in store for him. He was a true Virginia 
servant of the old school. His courteousness and 
suavity of manner, his dignified politeness and cere- 
moniousness, might have put Beau Brummel to the 
blush. The first gentleman in Europe" bore him- 
self with no more stateliness and consciousness of 
his high position on the mightiest throne in the 
world, than did Essex when, with a wave of his 
silver waiter, he ushered the high-bred ladies and 
gentlemen of the Old Dominion" to their seats at 
the table in the dining-room of Cedar Hall. 

''Have I ever disobliged you, master?" asked he, 
with a magnificent bow and flourish of his hand. 

" No, Essex, you have always been a most faith- 
ful servant." 

''Is it Madam Peyton's wish that I should leave 
you ?" 



" My mother wishes you to go, as it will prohatly 
be for your greater usefulness and happiness ; but, 
on her own account, she dislikes very much to part 
with you. You were father's body-servant so long, 
that she has become strongly attached to you.'' 

That will do. Master Charles. If I could forsake 
the family I was born in. it would not be wliile my 
old mistress needs me. If I decline into an invalid, 
or become supernumerary afterward/' with another 
flourish, " you can turn me off, if you please. For 
myself, I do not approve of novelties. As I came 
into this world, so I go out of it. And, if you please 
Master Charles, don't speak the word to me again.'' 

Another bow — another flourish, somewhat more 
deprecating than the others — and he was gone. 

Amused and gratified rather than discouraged 
by his vain attempt to make Essex understand the 
value of the great boon he offered liim — an offer 
Essex evidently took as a slight to his services, and 
a civil way of teUing him he was no longer needed — 
Mr. Peyton continued his efforts with unabated zeal. 

The next person from whom he experienced any 
opposition was one of the last from whom he ex- 
pected it. Ben, the coachman, a bright mulatto, 
and a man full of energy and ambition, in his own 
way, after consulting his wife Clara about accept- 
ing his master's proposal, came to him with a posi- 
tive refusal. 



If it was to work about hosses, now, mas'r, I 
wouldn't say no, for that I knows all about, and 
likes better than to eat my dinner ; but I never 
know'd any thing about working on a farm, and 
never 'spect to. 'Pears to me like a mighty coming 
down, to go to field-work after I've been raised in 
the house. Clary thinks so too." 

But the land will be your own — a very different 
thino^ from workino^ for a master." 

" I'm much 'bliged to you, mas'r ; and ef it was 
any thing else but going on a farm, I'd 'cept your 
offer ; but, 'deed, I couldn't do that for nobody" — 
for Ben possessed the negro passion for horses to 
its fullest extent. 

" But, Ben," continued Mr. Peyton, " think that 
you- can be a free and independent man." 

Yes, Mas'r Charles, I told Clary so ; 'and she 
said it didn't make no difference to speak of — a nig- 
ger's nothing but a nigger, whether he is free or not." 

" I am afraid Clara dreads the hard work that 
may fall to her lot, if she leaves her comfortable 
home here," said Mr. Peyton. " Call her to me, 
Ben ; I will talk to her about it." 

She had been down to the quarter administering 
a dose of medicine to some child, by Mrs. Fairfax's 
orders, and, summoned by Ben, she soon appeared, 
slowly emerging from the clump of trees, and as- 
cending the slope that led to the house. 



Hurry, Clary, hurry; masVs waitin' for you," 
said Ben. 

I am hurrying ; don't you see Vm running as 
fast as I can ?" replied Clara, changing her leisurely 
movement into what might be called rather a brisk 
walk, if the epithet brisk could be applied to Clara's 
graceful, swaying motions. 

She was a picturesque-looking object ; and, gaz- 
ing upon her then as she crossed the lawn, the im- 
agination would be irresistibly carried away from 
this land of universal activity, useful inventions, 
and angular movements, to those Eastern climes, 
where the sun and the genial soil do all the labor, 
and their spoiled children have but to receive and 
enjoy. AVith just such a gait of stately languor — 
regal in its indolent repose — might Pharaoh's daugh- 
ter have walked, amid her attendant maidens, along 
the rush-bordered Nile. Tall and slender, with 
beautifully-moulded limbs and bust, small hands 
and feet, softly-rounded features, and large, deeply- 
fringed eyes, in whose dark depths the gazer might 
fancy he could discover terrible capabilities of pas- 
sion or feeling, or infinite powers of love and ten- 
derness, she was yet only a gdntle and affectionate 
woman, very vain, and very fond of ease and enjoy- 
ment, but, in the main, faithful and true-hearted. 

She had been generally employed about Mrs. 
Peyton's person, and, as Charles Peyton supposed, 


dreaded the hardships and privations of a life of 
labor on a farm. But she had accompanied her 
mistress on two journeys to Philadelphia ; and the 
fine dressing she had seen among persons of her 
own rank there, with their opportunities for enjoy- 
ment, had struck her so favorably, that she had 
been since very desirous of returning. She told 
her master that, if he could get Ben a ^situation as 
coachman with some of his friends in Philadelphia, 
she would be very glad to help him as much as she 
could by sewing, but that nothing would make 
her consent to undertake the farm. Mr. Peyton 
would not agree to this proposal, and therefore, 
with many misgivings, Ben decided to remain a 

Another surprise was in store for Mr. Peyton. 

" I shall make the same proposal to Keziah that 
I have done to Nathan and the others," said he, 

but I do not suppose she will accept it." 

Oh, no, certainly not," exclaimed Virginia; "I 
should not wonder if she felt even more hurt than 
poor uncle Essex." 

But Keziah embraced the offer with an irrepress- 
ible delight most foreign to her nature. Mr. Peyton 
could not prevent a sensation of disappointment, for 
he had felt convinced that Keziah loved him too 
well to leave him. She instinctively divined his 



" I belong to you all the same, mas'r ; and if you 
ever want me, speak the vrord, and I come from 
the farmost ends of the arth ; but Ps born to be 
free, mas'r : I allers kno\y'd it. Some niggers born 
for slaves — heaps on 'em fit for nothin' else ; but 
this chile ain't one of them ar people.'' 

And she turned to go away : but quickly chang- 
ing her mind, she returned, raised her eyes, gener- 
ally downcast and brooding, and fixed them, with a 
searching look, full on his face. 

Mas'r Charles, next to G-od Almighty, I love 
you ; and you taught me to love Him the best : if 
you want me to stay with you, I stay." 

No, Keziah," replied Mr. Peyton, the moment- 
ary feeling of disappointment having passed away ; 

probably you will be of more real service and 
advantage to me by the good effect your industry 
and honesty will have on your companions on the 
farm, than if you spent your life in my service." 

To carry out this attempt to free his servants, 
and teach them self-reliance, Mr. Peyton selected 
ten of the best men upon his place. Nathan, with 
his wife Sally, and a family of six children, and 
Polydore, with his patient eyes still fixed on Keziah, 
who possessed a strange power over the docile giant, 
were among the most prominent of the band. 

Mr. Peyton himself had built as many cabins as 
were needed, and furnished them with the articles 


that were absolutely necessary. The rest they were 
to obtain by their own exertions. But many a mil- 
lionaire has begun with less. 

During the first year they v^orked the land for 
Mr. Peyton, as he wished to ascertain if it were 
sufficient for their support. 

With the conscientious Nathan as their overseer, 
and animated by the desire of proving themselves 
worthy of their liberty, all faithfully performed their 
part in the common task. 

Even Polydore seemed more thoroughly awake, 
and no longer took advantage of the opportunity 
offered, by being appointed to drive a cart or wagon, 
to enjoy a stolen slumber, while the sagacious ani- 
mals chose their own gait and direction. There 
was a story still current, that one night he had 
waked up to find himself fast in a swamp, ten 
miles from home, which he had left at sunrise to 
obtain a load of wood. But no such disaster befell 
him now. Perhaps^ Keziah's rebukes, sharp and 
decided, though rare, had some effect. 

He had selected a cabin close by hers, and em- 
ployed all his leisure time in assisting the severe 
mistress of his soul in cultivating a little flower- 
garden she had planted ; for, great an anomaly as 
it might seem, Keziah was an ardent admirer of 
every thing beautiful or lovely in nature. 

The farm proved so much more profitable the 
C 2 



first year than Mr. Peyton had expected, that he 
was much encouraged. Distributing the proceeds 
among the laborers \Yhen he gave them their free- 
dom, he asked them whether they preferred to work 
the land together as they had been doing, or to have 
it divided into lots. 

As they all relied greatly on Xathan's judgment, 
they decided to continue the first arrangement. 
Keziah opposed this decidedly, but, overruled by 
numbers, she yielded. 

The second year was not so favorable. In Mr. 
Peyton's frequent visits to Rocky Run farm, he 
found Nathan often sad and disheartened. 

" Every thing is gettin' behin' han', mas'r," he 
said one day. The niggers won't work ; if dey 
has de least ache or pain, dey nusses demselves 
mos' to death. Keziah's de best man in de lot, and 
she keeps Polydore pretty well up to the mark ; but 
de rest — dey work one day. and rest two.*' 

The result proved that Xathan's complaints were 
well founded. Instead of making more than enough 
for their support, as they should have done, they 
found themselves in debt, and some of them had to 
apply to Mr. Peyton for relief. 

The next year matters were still worse ; they had 
tasted the pleasure of an indolent life, and were not 
inclined to resume their old habits of active exer- 


Few men naturally like a life of labor. It was 
first inflicted as a curse ; and though obedience 
often transmutes it into a blessing, yet people gen- 
erally, white as well as black, count it a happiness 
if they are elevated above the necessity for exer- 

It was easy for Mr. Peyton's freed men to work 
enough to satisfy their consciences, and to procure 
a part of what was necessary for their subsistence, 
and often a great part ; for it is wonderful, to those 
of many wants, how little will suffice to satisfy 
those whose only desires spring from their animal 
nature. And they knew they had an unfailing 
resource, if sickness or distress came upon them. 
Mr. Peyton never refused them what they really 
needed, both for the sake of past services, and be- 
cause he did not wish to be the means of burdening 
others in the community with the care of his people. 
But he marked, with bitter disappointment, the 
downward progress of what, in his sanguine visions, 
he had depicted to himself as the Utopia of the 
colored race. It needed no prophetic eye to see 
that the children trained in indolence and self-indul- 
gence would probably, when his restraining influ- 
ence and willing aid were withdrawn, become the 
pest of the neighborhood by their thriftlessness and 

By the end of the third year, Nathan's patience 



was worn out. He came to Mr. Peyton with the 
proj3osal that the land should be divided. 

The reasons that he gave were, that the labor 
fell principally on himself, and those of his children 
who were able to work, Polydore and Keziah ; yet 
the others expected an equal share of the profits, 
and were inclined to find fault with him, on account 
of the falling off in their crops ; and if he managed 
to lay up any little store for himself, the rest evi- 
dently thought that, as long as it lasted, they had 
as good a right to it as he, and would come to him 
very much as they would have applied to a master, 
only with more freedom and importunity. The 
African is naturally generous, kind-hearted, and 
yielding, and Nathan often found himself unable 
to refuse, though, in the end, he was the greatest, 
perhaps the only real sufferer ; for the rest, without 
hesitation, went to Mr. Peyton when other means 
failed ; but Nathan had determined that nothing 
but extreme extremities" should force him to do 

" If I can not support myself and my family after 
all that Mas'r Charles has done for me, I don't ought 
to be free ;" and so his family often, during the third 
winter, lived for days on hoe-cake. Sometimes his 
oldest boys would succeed in catching an opossum, 
or some rabbits, which made a welcome variety in 
their fare, and fuel could always be obtained for 


the trouble of collecting it from the neighboring 

Yet, even in this, Nathan's patience was put to 
a hard trial ; for, being naturally what the North- 
erners call " a fore-handed man," he laid in quite 
a store of wood, ''light 'ud, back-logs," and all, 
before the cold weather came on. The first stormy 
day in winter, hearing a clattering and commotion 
outside his house, he opened the wooden shutter, 
which served also for a window, in the back of the 
cabin, and saw a number of little busy hands help- 
ing themselves liberally from his wood-pile. " What 
are you doin' dar?" he asked, in no gentle tones, 
while a disposition to run was clearly visible in the 
greater number of the little depredators ; but a 
commanding ''Stop! you hear?" kept them in their 
places, standing silent and abashed, with rolling 
eyes, and teeth, whose pearly brightness lit up 
occasionally some dark, chubby face, as, notwith- 
standing the awe in which uncle Nathan was held, 
an involuntary giggle would break forth. 

At length one of the smaller ones took heart of 
grace, and said, 

" Daddy sent me, uncle Nathan ; he's got de 
rheumatiz, and mammy has to stay to take care of 
him. He said he knew you'd give him some wood." 

"Well, ax me nex time; now take it, and be 
off wid ye. What you doin' yer. Jack ?" 


Mammy's sick ; she got de spine in her hack- 
bone drefful had ; she got it working so hard in de 
tater patch, and now de doctor say she mus' lie in 
hed ever so long. Daddy's nussin' de haby." 

••AH he's fit for.*' muttered Xathan; hut, touched 
by the singular nature of his mother's ilhiess, Jack 
also received permission to go home with full arms. 

One by one, each of the little throng came forward 
with his excuses, which were ^'no excuses," and 
his humble request, which, backed by the chilling 
rain, and raw, gusty wind, Nathan found irresistible. 

It rained, and snowed, and sleeted for nearly a 
week, and by the end of that time Nathan's wood- 
pile was, as he pathetically observed, ''nowhar." 

In this emergency, he went in to consult with 
Keziah, who, pointing triumphantly to her undi- 
minished stock of fuel, said, 

She'd dare any lazy nigger to lay a finger on 


" Yes, aunt Keziah, dat's all right; but. you see, 
I feels somehow like a father to dem all, and I 
can't see 'em suffer as long as dey are under me." 

^' AVhy don't you give 'em up, den, and go to 
work for yourself, as I wanted you to do at fust ?" 

Dat's the 'dentical ting I've come yer about," 
replied Nathan; ''let's hold a conference on dat 
very subject." 

Just then a clumsy shuffling and stamping was 


heard outside the door ; then a knocking, which, 
being answered by a loud Come in" from Keziah, 
Polydore appeared, leaving, after the custom of the 
Turks, though probably unaware of the existence 
of such a nation or custom, his shoes outside. 
Keziah's floor was not to be profaned by the mass 
of mud that Polydore gathered in his daily tramps ; 
for, like the Hebrews of old, he was content if he 
could supply his wants from day to day, giving, 
literally, the morrow no thought. 

You've ben gone in de woods longer dan com- 
mon," said Keziah. 

" Yes," replied he, placing on the table several 
bunches of holly, with its red berries and glossy 
leaves; ^' fust, I had to tote home wood for myself, 
and den one and den anoder axed me to fetch some 
for dem, and I've ben as busy as dat ar bee missis 
used to preach 'bout till dis blessed minute. I 
fetched dat green stuff to you, for I know'd you'd 
like it to stick 'bout de room for Christmas times, 
and dat's comin' soon. I'll bring some more to- 

'^Have you had any breakfast?" asked Keziah. 
No," replied Polydore, with the reluctant, abash- 
ed manner of a child confessing a fault, and at the 
same time excusing it; ''I hadn't no wood. It 
'peared to me yesterday I had fetched home plenty 
for two days ; but fust one came, and den anoder, 



and dis one \Yas sick, and dat one was wuss, and 
it was all gone 'fore I know'd it." 

You and uncle Nathan is two blessed fools," 
said Keziah, with a sort of resigned contempt, as 
she went to work mixing a hoe-cake in the most 
scientific manner, and, after placing it in the hot 
ashes to bake, began making an olla podrida that 
sent forth a most savory odor. 

While thus engaged, she kept up with Nathan a 
discussion of ways and means." When they dif- 
fered in their opinion as to the best course to choose, 
they appealed to Polydore, who would gladly have 
acted the umpire with impartiality and dignity; 
but his attention, distracted by the good things 
that were in preparation, he found it impossible, 
and, after chafing Keziah's temper to the uttermost 
by several mal apropos answers, he lapsed into a 
state of entire confusion, but placid satisfaction, 
and contented himself with clinching every pro- 
posal of hers with a '"Zackly so, Keziah," ^'Dat's 
all right, ole woman," until, soothed by his admi- 
ration, she resumed her usual grim composure, and 
placed the smoking viands before him. 

To have seen the enjoyment with which Polydore 
fell upon these creature comforts," would have 
given unalloyed pleasure to any benevolent heart. 
No fragments were left ; but when Keziah had re- 
moved the dishes, she said. 


" You know, Polydore, this is a very important 
subjeo' Nathan and I are consultin' about, and we 
want your 'pinion." 

'Zackly so, Keziah ; I knows dat. Drive ahead." 

Thus adjured, she went on to tell him that the 
subject they were conversing about was no less 
than the advantages that would spring from a di- 
vision of the property, each one cultivating their 
own farm, instead of working it in common as they 
had been doing. They were also considering what 
places they would prefer for their own share, if 
Mr. Peyton should approve of the division ; for 
they still considered themselves as so much his 
charge, that they did nothing of importance with- 
out obtaining his consent. 

They concluded that they would like to remain 
as they were, neighbors, as then they could mutu- 
ally assist each other in their plans for improvement, 
and protection from the extortions of the indolent 
people around them. 

All this was explained to Polydore, and discussed 
for his benefit, while he sat quietly on a section of 
the trunk of a tree, which, stripped of its bark, and 
carefully smoothed, filled well enough the place of 
an ottoman. It had a nice cushion and covering 
of bright chintz, which gave quite a brilliant look 
to Keziah's little cabin ; but these only came out 
in pleasant weather, when visitors from Cedar Hill 



might be expected. When thus arrayed, Polydore 
never thought of occupying it, but now he had set- 
tled himself very comfortably, and, turning his head 
a little away from them, listened, apparently in 
motionless attention, to Nathan's calm, slowly- 
spoken arguments, and Keziah's pithy and decided 

They finished what they had to say, and waited 
to hear his opinion. A lower droop of the head, 
and a deep, heavy breath rewarded their patience. 

''He's dead asleep," said Keziah. ''I believe in 
my heart if he was on de fieP of battle he'd go to 
sleep with de bullets flyin' roun' him. But it don't 
make no defference — he'll do what we do." 

''He'll do what you want him to do, Keziah," 
said Nathan, with a gallant bow; " de ladies is 
mighty powerful over our weakness." 

Nathan was not much given to the vanity of 
complimenting, and Keziah appreciated his remark 
the more on that account. 

After a few more words, Nathan rose to go, say- 
ing, "I'll tell my ole woman what we've been talk- 
ing about, and de very fust chance I get at Mas'r 
Charles, I'll let him know how every thing is goin' 
wrong, and, to save my soul, I can't make it right; 
and I know he'll agree with us. You see, Keziah, 
I feel troubled 'bout my chillun. Naterally, dey 
ar as good chillun as ever lived, and we tries our 


best to lam 'em to obey dar parents, and to walk 
in de ways of de Lord. But we can't keep 'em 
from 'sociating with de oders ; and dey larn such 
mighty bad tricks and words. If we have a farm 
to ourselves^we can live more to one side, you know." 

And this conversation led to the proposal to Mr. 
Peyton that the land should be divided. 

To this he readily consented. He saw that mat- 
ters could not be much worse, and perhaps, when 
each one felt himself individually responsible, they 
might improve. 

He had a long talk with the delinquents, to urge 
them to their duty. They all acknowledged their 
short-comings, and promised amendment ; but when 
he placed several motives before them to incite them 
to improvement — among others, the increased re- 
spect with which they would be regarded — he 
always received this reply — varied occasionally in 
language, but conveying the same idea — 

Laws ! Mas'r Charles, a nigger can't be any 
thing but a nigger." 

The only resource he had, when reduced to this 
emergency, was to remind them that in heaven all 
distinction of race or color is unknown, and that 
they could hardly attain a state of blessedness in 
the other world without performing their duty in 

But there were only a few on whom this argu- 



ment seemed to produce any effect. It is a melan- 
choly fact, that the external reality of heavenly 
things is but little felt, even by the greater part 
of those whose minds are trained to consider them 
from infancy. How, then, can we blame these 
ignorant beings, whose mental faculties lie almost 
dormant for want of exercise, if, having no earthly 
motives to stimulate them, they neglect the divine 
ones that are offered in their stead ? 

To do right, for the pure love of right, or the 
love of Grod, is a very difficult thing. Few know 
how difficult ; for there are but few who have not 
some other helps to their upward course, in the 
approbation of friends, the increased esteem of their 
acquaintances, and the growing influence they must 
feel they exert in society. 

These inducements can be applied but in a lim- 
ited degree to the negro; and, with every earthly 
aspiration crushed out of his heart by the overpow- 
ering superiority of the white man in social and 
political advantages, it is no wonder he improves 
so slowly, or displays so little desire for intellectual 

The division of the land worked admirably for 
Nathan, Keziah, and Polydore. 

All encouraging and assisting each other, their 
little places soon wore a look of thrift and comfort 
that gladdened Mr. Peyton's heart. 

MR. PEYTOM'S E X P E R I M E IS Jt is. 59 

Their farms looked, amid the general decay and 
desolation around them, like oases in the desert, 
and, by contrast, served to bring out more promi- 
nently the improvidence and want of steadiness of 
purpose in the others, who had the same advant- 

Those only whose lives were regulated by their 
consciences and the word of G-od, were found strong 
enough to bear the trial of worldly prosperity. Those 
governed by lower motives sank, as soon as fear of 
their master's displeasure, or desire of his approval, 
were withdrawn, into a state of apathy as far as 
regarded every thing but their bodily comforts — 
and even those were reduced to a lower scale than 

Mr. Peyton, though sick at heart whenever he 
thought of the failure of this experiment, commenced 
with such sanguine hopes, yet did not lose his inter- 
est in those who had once been his peculiar charge. 

He labored earnestly to undo the evil he had 
unwittingly done to the community, by throwing 
upon it so many idle and useless people, who were 
allowing their children to grow up in practices of 
petty pilfering and vagrancy, which rendered them 
a nuisance to the neighborhood. 

Every year of Mr. Peyton's life made his mistake 
clearer to him. Yet he was just enough not to 
attribute his disappointment to an inherent defect 



in the character of the colored race. Other people 
so situated, with so few inducements to self-im- 
provement, might have worked much greater injury 
to society than they had done. He only felt that 
extreme caution was necessary before again taking 
a step that involved so much. 





'Tis all men's office to speak patience 
To those that wring under the load of sorrow; 
But no man's virtue, nor sufficiency, 
To be so moral, when he shall endure 
The like himself. Therefore, give me no counsel : 
My griefs cry louder than advertisement. 


Years passed away. Another scheme for the 
improvement of the colored race, that seemed at 
first more uncertain in its results, and more diffi- 
cult in its execution than Mr. Peyton's plan of the 
farm, had been commenced in weakness, and fear, 
and doubt ; but, by the mighty help of Him who 
can make the meanest of His creatures do an angePs 
work, this little seed, when first put into the ground, 
the smallest of all seeds, was developing — slowly, 
indeed, but with a growth more vigorous and healthy 
on that very account— into a mighty tree, whose 
overshadowing branches should shed their blessed 
influences over a whole continent. 

Steadily onward came the slowly-advancing le- 



gions along a path whose guide-posts and way- 
marks were the head-stones of those willing spirits 
who, with brave resignation, had placed themselves 
in the van, that they might meet the brunt of the 
battle, and bear the hottest of the day, and had 
laid down their lives with a martyr's willingness 
and a martyr's triumphant hope. 

Mr. Peyton had been from the first deeply inter- 
ested in the great plan of colonization, so far-reach- 
ing and comprehensive in its design, and he had 
tried to excite the same feeling in those of his serv- 
ants whom he thought best fitted for liberty ; b'.u. 
as far as Ben and Clara were concerned, his lab(>r3 
were ineffectual. 

A true type of many of their race, they would 
gladly have been free, if they had been allnvr(;fl t > 
exchange their easy, comfortable mode of ! 
the household of a Virginia planter for the grra:. : 
variety and more easily obtained pleasures tl^ 
would be afforded them in a city. A lov^of 
was also, in common with many other half-c; 
people, one of their strongest passions, and tli" . - 
ter opportunity they would have of obtaining and 
displaying it had no slight influence upon them. 
But a desire for freedom, for its own sake, was too 
abstract and intangible a motive to affect them. 

Mr. Peyton was unwilling to expose their facile 
dispositions and unstable principles to the tempta- 


tions a city life would offer them ; and so time 
passed on, and they still remained members of his 

At length an epidemic, often fatal, and gener- 
ally supposed to be contagious, came, making its 
insidious progress through the land, and at one time 
every member of Mr. Peyton's immediate family 
lay struck down by the simoon of its breath. His 
mother and tw^o of his children died, and only by 
the most assiduous nursing were the lives of the 
rest saved. Keziah, for whose assistance then many 
a wish was breathed, was far away, and the charge 
of the sick devolved on Clara and aunt Abby. 

Clara's slow, gentle movements, her soft, light 
touch, and sympathizing manner, made her a great 
favorite at the sick-bed, and for many days she was 
in constant request. And yet her affectionate nature 
never grew weary, and she complied with the fret- 
ful wish of the convalescent with the same uncom- 
plaining patience that she had displayed while they 
lay in the shadow of death. 

''Is it still your wish to go to Philadelphia to 
live ?" asked Mr. Peyton, w^hen the family were 
able to leave their chambers, and dispense with 
their gentle nurse. 

'' Yes, mas'r ; Ben and me w^ould like to go very 
much, if you would let us," was the reply. 

" Yes," said he, ''you may go, if it is your wish; 



I think you have well earned your freedom and 
he thought with a pang of his two fair boys, who 
had sighed out their last breath on Clara's bosom, 
and his cherished mother, who had had no other 
arm but hers to raise her dying head, and no other 
hand to wipe the death-dews from her brow. 

I shall go, as usual, to the Xorth this summer," 
he continued, '-and I will see if I can find a suit- 
able situation for you among my acquaintances 

Can Americus go with us V' asked Clara. 
What ! your brother ? No, I think not," replied 
Mr. Peyton. 

But Clara ursfed the matter with so much earn- 
estness, that Mr. Peyton, his heart softened by his 
bereavements, felt unable to resist her plea for her 
only brother, a boy some years younger than her- 
self, whom she loved with unusual warmth. He 
granted the request, on the condition that they 
should all remain with him one year longer. This 
he did, partly to see if their affection would bear 
the trial of self-denial and delay, and still more that 
he might train them more effectually for a state of 
independence. His first effort had shown him how 
much labor and patience were required for this 
purpose, and he now proceeded with more caution. 

Ben and Clara readily acceded to this condition. 
Clara would have remained three times as long 


uncomplainingly for her brother, and Ben was very 
much in the habit of yielding to his wife's inclina- 

The course of the next year saw them fairly 
established in Philadelphia ; Ben as a coachman 
in a gentleman's family in Walnut Street, with 
twenty dollars a month, Americus as waiter in an- 
other with fifteen, and Clara and her little girl in 
a house in South Street, where she was installed 
mistress of two rooms and a pump, with a coal 
cooking-stove in the kitchen, which nearly burned 
her fingers off, and drove her to the verge of distrac- 
tion, before she learned how to manage it. 

The next summer, when Mr. Peyton was passing 
through Philadelphia on his way farther North, he 
stopped for a day or two, that he might inquire 
after his freedmen. After dinner, on the first day 
of his arrival, Mrs. Peyton proposed a walk up 
Chestnut Street, to call upon some old friends. 

It was early in the summer, before the streets 
get the deserted look, and the persons sauntering 
through them the faded, languid appearance , they 
wear later in the season. Every -thing was bright 
and gay ; the streets were thronged with ladies ia 
their fresh and delicate summer attire ; airy robes 
were floating, dainty little boots glancing in and 
out, and bonnets, cloud-like in their translucent 
lightness, were decked with exquisite bouquets, 



mocking the eye by their close resemblance to 
natm*e's cunning work, till the passers-by might 
imagine themselves in some gay garden. 

What an elegantly-dressed lady that is before 
us!" said Virginia; ''just notice in what perfect 
keeping every part of her dress is ; that light, stone- 
colored silk, and white crape shawl, and tasteful 
white bonnet. I think I shall take her for my 
model. You know sister Julia wished me to bring 
her a fashionable shawl and bonnet, and I do not 
see any thing that pleases me so well. But how 
fantastically she has dressed that little child of 
hers !" 

''It is the fashion, I presume," replied Mr. Pey- 
ton; "I have observed that they al Hook very much 

A stylish carriage came rolling down the street. 

" Look, Charles !" exclaimed Virginia, "there is 
Ben on the box." 

The lady in front of them bowed. Ben smiled 
in return with an expression of familiar pleasure, 
and then, catching sight of his old master, his look 
changed to a whimsical mixture of delight and dis- 
comfiture. Pleasure at seeing those he liked so 
well, and that they should see his wife too, array- 
ed in her best, and doubt as to their approval of 
her manner of disposing of their funds, were about 
equally balanced. He had only time, however, to 


take off his hat with a peculiar flourish, meant to 
express a great deal, and to give Clara a significant 
look as he drove by. She turned to see what he 
meant, and her eyes encountered Mr. Peyton's. 

Oh, Master Charles, I am so glad to see you !" 
she exclaimed. 

" Clara ! is it possible !" said Mr. and Mrs. Peyton 
in a breath. ''Why, Clara, how fine you look!" 
continued Mrs. Peyton ; ''I have been admiring 
your dress for the last two squares. And this is 
your little Madge, is it? I should never have 
recognized her." 

There Vv^as, indeed, a great metamorphosis. She 
had been a round, chubby, laughing little thing, 
dressed in a simple checked frock, and, except in 
the coldest weather, running about barefooted ; and 
now she was thin and sickly-looking, with a closely- 
fitting frock that came hardly to her knees, and 
stockings drawn tight over her slender limbs, yet 
leaving them partly exposed ; while gray boots, and 
a gipsy hat, with long blue streamers, completed 
her attire. 

A consciousness that the surprise shown by her 
old master and mistress was not one of entire pleas- 
ure, prevented Clara from feeling perfectly at her 
ease. Yet she could not find it in her heart to be 
wholly sorry for the untimely meeting. She had 
often thought, when surveying herself in the glass 



on Sunday afternoon, previous to going to church, 
and taking her usual walk down Spruce- Street — 

" If master or mistr'ss could see me now, wouldn't 
they be astonished?" 

And astonished they were, even more so than 
Clara had anticipated. 

I thous^ht Clara had more sense than to dress 
herself in that unsuitable way. I am sure Ben's 
wages can not support her long in that style. I 
must talk to her about it," said Virginia, as, after 
a warm greeting, they passed on. 

I wonder how this will end," said Mr. Peyton, 
musingly. ''Judging by appearances, I am afraid 
I shall find I have made another great mistake. I 
will speak to Ben, and give him a little advice about 
his affairs." 

Mrs. Peyton found Clara the next day, neatly 
and suitably attired, and busy with her sewing. 
She was alone, for Madge was at school, she said. 
What is she studying?" asked Mrs. Peyton. 

Among a long list of studies, Clara mentioned 

" Why are you having her taught music?" asked 
Mrs. Peyton ; will it ever be of any use to her ?" 

" Yes, mistr'ss, I think it will. A friend of mine. 
Miss Amanda Fitzwalter (and Clara, in her sim- 
plicity, showed evident symptoms of gratified pride 
in numbering Miss Fitzwalter among her friends) 


plays very well on the guitar, and sings most beau- 
tiful ; and several white ladies take lessons of her. 
I thought if my Maggie could learn, she might give 
music lessons too — it would be more genteel than 
to take in sewins^." 

On giving her a little advice, and a gentle reproof 
as to her style of dress, Clara answered meekly that 
she had earned it all herself, excepting the shawl, 
which Americus had given her. The families her 
husband and brother were engaged in kept her 
supplied with needle- work. 

But have you laid by any thing, in case you 
or Ben should be taken sick ?" asked Mrs. Peyton. 

^' Laws no, mistr'ss !" said Clara, with a won- 
dering shake of her head; me and Ben's never 
sick. White ladies think so much of gettin' sick ! 
I never see one that they don't talk to me about 
it; but I don't know what it is." 

You may know one of these days, Clara," said 
Mrs. Peyton, rather severely, for Clara's flippancy 
had struck her disagreeably; but remembering her 
patient nursing, she went on to talk to her more 
plainly, and urge upon her the duties of economy 
and of desires suited to her position. 

Clara listened without replying, but it was easy 
to see that her thoughts were wandering. 

She was examining with a practiced eye Mrs. 
Peyton's simple yet elegant dress. At last, when 



Virginia had set in every conceivable light the con- 
sequences of her folly and extravagance, in short, 
had given quite a good little extempore sermon, that 
she had been composing all the morning, Clara re- 
plied, " Yes, mistr'ss ; I will try, mistr'ss ; I really 
will. Ben and me wdll get along first-rate. But, 
mistr'ss, I would like to show you a new collar I've 
made myself, almost exactly like the one you have 
on" — and Clara went to the next room to find it. 

While she was gone Virginia glanced round the 
room. It looked very neat and comfortable. The 
floor was covered with a nice carpet ; there was a 
handsome sofa, and a bureau with a swing mirror, 
a marble-topped table, a few chairs, some gay color- 
ed engravings, framed and hanging about the room, 
with the portrait of a solemn-looking colored clergy- 
man, in a white cravat and spectacles, with one 
hand resting on the Bible, and the other grasping a 
manuscript sermon ; a few china ornaments over 
the mantle-piece completed the furniture and adorn- 
ments of the parlor. A hasty examination of the 
kitchen, the door to which Clara had left open, 
showed the same orderly arrangement. The floor, 
the windows, the dresser, and the tables, in short, 
every thing that ought to be clean and bright, were 
spotlessly white. Mrs. Peyton remembered that the 
well-scoured appearance of the steps and pavement 
had struck her as she had entered the house. 


Clara was always neat," thought she ; but 
now she seems to have caught the Philadelphia ma- 
nia for water;" and glad to find something to praise, 
she commended her, on her return, for the exquisite 
order of every thing around her. 

Clara was very much pleased with the change in 
the tone of the conversation, and showed to her some- 
time mistress- with no little pride all her comforta- 
ble household arrangements, told her how much Ben 
was liked in Mr. Westcott's family, and how well 
Americus was getting along. She expatiated on the 
comfort it was to her that they could all go to 
church together almost every Sunday, and hear so 
fine a preacher as Mr. Wiley, the man over the man- 

Mrs. Peyton listened with amused interest to 
Clara's artless confidences ; it was impossible to 
keep up even the show, much less the reality of 
displeasure, against one so thoroughly good-hu- 

''Then you like every thing here very much?" 
asked Virginia, as Clara stopped for a few moments 
in her outpourings. 

''Yes, mistr'ss, 'deed I do ; it is even better than 
I thought it would be ; and I have so many friends" — 

She was interrupted by the opening of the door, 
and a little black woman, round, plump, and conse- 
quential, with her chin thrown up in the air by the 
D 2 



exertion of maintaining a proper dignity of deport- 
ment, entered with a roll of music in her hand. 

'•This is Miss Amanda Fitzwalter," said Clara, 
in some embarrassment, while Miss Amanda calm- 
ly seated herself. 

''Ah! the friend you were speaking about," said 
Mrs. Peyton. 

"Yes, mistrss," replied Clara. 

"Oh!" said Amanda, with a shake of the head 
and an upward look, 

" "VMiat is friendship but a name, 
A charm that lulls to sleep, 
A shade that follows wealth and fame, 
And leaves the wretch to weep !*' 

This outburst took Mrs. Peyton by surprise, but 
she soon saw that it was only intended for effect; 
Miss Amanda having picked up those four lines 
somewhere, evidently thought this a good opportu- 
nity to display them. They were clearly not in- 
tended as an insinuation against Clara, who listened 
to her oracle in simple admiration, and with a blind 
belief in her that made Mrs. Peyton a little indig- 
nant as well as amused. 

"I encountered Mr. Peyton a few moments ago," 
continued Miss Fitzwalter, addressing Clara, while 
Virginia wondered how she knew her husband, " and 
he reminded me that this evening is the last meet- 
ing for the season of the Philomathean Society, and 


at the termination they intend to have a dance. 
I promised him I would give my countenance to 

It is Americus, mistr'ss," said Clara ; he be- 
longs to a society that meets in the evening and 
makes speeches. He speaks most elegant, they all 

What do they speak ahout?" asked Mrs. Peyton. 
'Most every thing, 'specially poetry and poli- 
tics," replied Clara. 

" Lately," observed Amanda, with her calm and 
measured propriety of utterance, ^'they have been 
debatin' on Foreign and Domestic Poetry. To-night 
the subjec' is, ' AVhich is the finest poet of Human 
Nature, Byron or Shelley V " 

Mrs. Peyton hardly knew whether to laugh or be 
indignant at the absurdity of the whole affair, and 
Miss Fitz waiter's pompous manner. She was al- 
most ready to believe that the colored race were, as 
she had often heard, incapable of taking care of 
themselves, when she saw those to whom so much 
had been given — such careful, early training, so 
much religious instruction, and at last liberty — thus 
wasting their time and opportunities. When they 
might be vindicating their right to freedom, and 
also the capability of their race to appreciate and 
enjoy that precious boon, they were wasting their 
energies on every pursuit that could gratify their 



vanity, and losing sight of those means that could 
alone increase their true respectability. 

Soon afterward, two or three more of Clara's 
friends entering, all handsomely dressed, and look- 
ing as though they had come to make a formal 
morning call, Mrs. Peyton took her leave. 

When Virginia told Mr. Peyton the particulars of 
her visit, and the impression she had received from 
it, he did not agree with her as to the entire folly 
of the Philomathean Society. 

^^It is certainly better," said he, "than many 
other ways of passing their leisure evenings, and it 
shows soiTiC desire for intellectual improvement, and 
some power of application, for they must read and 
study to be able to make any speech at all. Byron 
and Shelley are not, to be sure, likely to be of any 
great use to them, nor will their studies of poetry 
bring about any practical result, I presume ; still, 
there is a decided advance where mental enjoyments 
take the place of other pleasures. I met Americus 
a little w^hile ago, 'encountered him,' as Miss Fitz- 
walter would say, and he is really very much im- 
proved in appearance ; he has quite a stylish air, 
and seemed delighted with his new mode of life." 

The next evening, Ben, Americus, Clara, and lit- 
tle Maggie came to report themselves to their old 
master. Mr. Peyton was very glad to see them so 
happy, and apparently so prosperous. He gave 


them a great deal of good advice about laying by a 
little store against "the evil day and they listen- 
ed with deep attention, and made many promises, 
which Ben tried hard to keep, but which Clara and 
her brother forgot almost as soon as they ceased to 
fall upon their ear. 

Americus looked a little confused when Mrs. Pey- 
ton asked him about the success of his speech. Ben 
answered for him. 

" It went off most beautiful, mistr'ss ; it's 'most 
a pity Americus ain't a preacher — he speaks so well. 
He's got all the big words ready for just when he 
wants 'em." 

" Which side did you take ?" asked Mrs. Peyton. 

" Why, ma'am," said Americus, " Miss Mary, 
Mr. Patterson's daughter, told me that Shelley was 
an atheist, so, of course, I would not uphold him. 
I took Byron's side." 

''Yes, mas'r," said Ben, " he spoke 'most an hour 
without stopping a minute. I never see how the 
words did come out of his mouth. I went sound 
asleep, for I was mighty tired — I'd been out till 
morning almost for three or four nights, driving the 
family home from parties — and when I woke up he 
was going on just the same." 

And honest Ben seemed to take as much pride in 
his brother-in-law's achievements as if they were 
his own. 



Mr. Peyton was gratified to find them so pleas- 
antly situated. They went regularly to church, 
they told him ; and little Madge went to Sunday 
school, as well as day school. If they had shown 
more foreTliought and prudence, more of Xathan's 
or Keziah's spirit, he would have felt fewer misgiv- 
ings about them; but knowing the difficulties they 
had to contend against, and pleased to find they 
had fallen into no bad habits, he left them, hoping 
that his advice would have some effect, though he 
hardly ventured to expect it. 

But their life was not all sunshine ; and there 
were times when they wished themselves back un- 
der Mr. Peyton's protection, when occasionally the 
mighty arm of the law was found unable to resist 
the aggressions of the strong against the weak. 
Belonging to a race almost universally considered 
inferior, regarded as the pariahs of society, even 
when in outward forms justice was done to them, 
the spirit with which its enactments was carried 
out was often so oppressive, that they derived but 
little satisfaction from its decrees : and obliged to 
live apart, to eat apart, to enjoy themselves apart, 
and to come by themselves to that blessed sacra- 
ment in which believers declare that they are ••one 
in Christ." while every attempt to put themselves 
on even a temporary level with those more favored 
is so jealously guarded against and resisted, it is 


wonderful that there is still so much good-will and 
kindness of feeling between the races, and that in 
the hearts of those on whom these customs must 
press so heavily there is so little bitterness or hatred 

Not long after Mr. Peyton left Philadelphia, there 
was an anti-slavery fair held there, and great feel- 
ing was aroused in consequence in relation to that 
much- vexed subject. In addition to this, an old 
feud between the lowest class of laborers and the 
colored "race had broken out afresh in the suburbs 
of the city. All the watchfulness of the police was 
insufficient to prevent the perpetration of acts of 
fearful violence, in which the blacks were almost 
invariably the sufferers rather than the aggressors. 

Americus had often seen a living proof of the 
savage ferocity with which these quarrels were 
carried on, in the person of a colored man, whom 
age and misfortune rendered venerable, standing 
at the corner of a street, with his tall athletic fig- 
ure erect and motionless, his head bald and exposed 
to the cold winds, his sightless eyes touching every 
tender heart with painful pity. Though for years he 
might be seen standing in the same spot, the char- 
ity of the passers-by never failed to him, for it could 
easily be seen that he was no common beggar. 

He had been many years before a maker and 
mender of shoes in a very humble way, and was so 



honest and industrious, that a good deal of the 
custom of the neighborhood in that line fell to his 
share. But unfortunately, after he had fairly- 
established himself in his little business, many of 
the houses and shops around were rented by the 
whites, \yho, indignant at having colored people 
for their rivals, and often their successful ones, 
declared their determination to drive them from 
the street, or inflict summary vengeance on them. 
This poor man paid little attention to their threats. 
He could not afford to remove — it would break up 
his business, and ruin him entirely ; and he had a 
family dependent on him. Therefore he kept him- 
self as quiet as possible, and worked more indus- 
triously than ever. He could not have pursued a 
course better calculated to excite the malignant 
passions of the unreasonable and excitable people 
around him. 

One night, after he and all his family had retired 
to rest, a sranor of ruffians forced their way into his 
room, and while his wife and children were calling 
in vain for mercy and help, they made him blind 
for life. 

Americus had often pitied and relieved him, and 
now, when the same state of feeling was showing 
itself, though not excited to an equal pitch of exas- 
peration, he trembled lest a similar fate, or one even 
worse, might befall him or those dear to him. It 


was therefore with a feeling of no little fear that 
he prepared to attend a lady who had been spend- 
ing the evening with his employer's family to her 
residence. If his natm^al diffidence had not re- 
strained him, he would have told Mr. Patterson 
that he had heard that it was unsafe for a colored 
servant to escort a lady home at that particular 
time, for that, in the excited state of public feeling 
then, they were liable to be stopped and insulted ; 
but he was very much afraid of being called a 
coward ; and besides, as Mr. Patterson was unable, 
from the state of his health, to attend the lady 
himself, he saw no other way left, if she chose to 

His heart misgave him as she turned into Tenth 
Street, and continued walking for some distance in 
a southerly direction, and still more as the fire-bell 
had been pealing forth its summons for some time, 
its strokes indicating that the engines were needed 
in that part of the city. It had ceased ringing a 
few minutes before the lady had set forth on her 
homeward way, and they were passed by one engine 
after another clattering over the pavement on their 
return, with the usual noisy and shouting accom- 
paniment of men and boys. 

They passed quickly along, and Americus was in 
hopes that the rest of their way might be pursued 
without interruption, when suddenly strange and 



frightful sounds from one of the neighboring streets 
— oaths, imprecations, blows, hurried trampling on 
the sidewalk, with the sudden fall of some heavy 
body — startled the timid pedestrians. 

The lady turned hastily to Americus, who was 
at a little distance behind her, and bade him come 

Some of the fire companies must be engaged in 
a fight," said she; we had better turn into the 
next street." 

But before they had time to do this, the combat- 
ants came rushing around the corner, shouting, 
fighting, and struggling in the most inextricable 
confusion. Some of the foremost of the crowd caught 
sight of the lady and Americus, and with a savage 
yell they sprang toward them. 

The lady ran up the steps of the nearest house, 
the door of which was opened, as soon as she reach- 
ed it, by the inmates, who had seen the disturbance, 
and were eager to afford her a refuge. They did 
not observe Americus, or were afraid to keep the 
door open longer, for it was closed as he approached 
it, and he was obliged to face the excited mob, whose 
passions having dethroned their conscience and over- 
powered their reason, now possessed the whole mass, 
and led them on to deeds that seemed rather the 
instinctive acts of ferocious and destructive animals 
than those of rational beings. 


No one stopped to ask the cause of the onset on 
the unoffending man, still less to question its justice, 
and before he had time to collect his thoughts, 
Americas found himself the centre of the tumultu- 
ous crowd, and the recipient of blows and thrusts 
that fell upon him like a shower of hailstones. He 
was pushed down and trampled upon several times, 
and as often rose, terror and desperation rendering 
him hardly conscious of the injuries he received, and 
pressed his way through the throng. 

Unfortunately, he happened to be particularly 
well-dressed that night, and there was not an arti- 
cle of his apparel, from his carefully tied cravat 
down to his brightly polished boots, that did not cost 
him several severe bruises from the jealous mob. 
At length, with his clothes torn and hanging in rib- 
bons around him, without his hat, and with but one 
boot, he found himself in a part of the crowd too 
busy settling their private quarrels, as to the supe- 
riority of their respective engines, to concern them- 
selves about him. 

Slipping unobservedly through them, while cries 
of " Stop the nigger ! Stop him !" were shouted in 
vain to combatants engaged in their own disputes, 
he reached at last the corner of the street. To run 
hastily round it, and take refuge in an oyster cellar 
near by, kept by an acquaintance of his, was the 
work of a moment. 



He went in expecting to receive the attention his 
bruises and other injuries required ; but instead of 
that he soon found himself busy in assisting and 
comforting others ; for lying stretched on a couch 
hastily prepared in the cellar was its proprietor, in 
a state of profound insensibility. The blood slowly 
trickling: from some wounds in his face and hands 
alone showed that he was still alive. 

" How did this happen ?" asked Americus. 
You know Joshua Mason's people asked the 
wife of the injured man. 

" Yery well," was the reply. 
Well, you see, they was a goin' to give a dance, 
and we had been invited, but we couldn't very 
well go ; and they wanted John to send the isters, 
and John he got them all ready ; he cooked them his 
own self, the very last he'll ever cook, I'm afraid ; 
and then he said, as there wa'n't much business a 
doin' to-night, he'd take them round himself, and 
see how they came on, and our little Alfred went 
with him ;. and he says, that just after they got into 
Myamensing, a whole gang of Killers and Bouncers, 
and all them rowdy fellers, ran out from some alley 
and tried to get the isters away from John ; but 
John he held on, and called for the p'lice as loud as 
he could ; then they all rushed on him, and some 
had knives in their hands, and Alfred couldn't see 
'zactly how it was ; but he saw a little feller creep 



up behin' my husband with a slung-shot in his 
hand, and give him such a blow with it on the back 
of his head that he fell down as if he was struck 
dead ; and then they grabbed the isters and ran 

The poor woman sobbed piteously as she finished 
her simple story. Her apprehensions proved to be 
well founded, for her husband never recovered from 
the injuries he received that night. Yet the per- 
petrators of that lawless act of violence, though liv- 
ing in the midst of a law and order-loving commu- 
nity, were never discovered nor brought to justice. 

It is a true remark of some modern writer, that 
no barbarians, not even the G-oths and Vandals of 
former times, are so reckless, and fierce, and destruc- 
tive in their habits as the savages of civilization. 

Growing up under the shadow of Christian 
churches, but unsummoned by their bells ; living 
amid people refined and educated, but who avoid all 
intercourse with them, as if there were contamina- 
tion in their approach; thus debarred from their ear- 
liest cry from all good influences, and shut up to 
the teachings of riot and intemperance, and fraud 
and poverty, that debases where it does not purify, 
it is but the legitimate working out of the dark 
problem that such means applied to snch natures 
should produce the results that are read of daily in 
the purlieus of all large cities. 



The Saxon has not the indolent and docile nature 
of the African, but with strong passions and insa- 
tiate desires, he has mighty energies to incite them 
to activity, and a resolute will that hangs on to its 
prey with unyielding pertinacity. These qualities, 
so powerful when directed to any good purpose, are 
equally so when urging their possessors forward in 
the downward path, or rather, as one restraint after 
another drops off, they seem to gain, as they de- 
scend, in adroitness in planning and energy in ex- 
ecuting their reckless schemes. 

If the lazy philanthropists, who give a small share 
of their income to advance the cause of Christ, and 
then settle down under the complacent impression 
that they have done all that is required, and may 
fairly claim the epithet of benevolent, were but once 
to wake up and realize how much more good a lit- 
tle activit}'^ of the spirit and a little personal influ- 
ence would do than all their money, they might 
soon clear the crowded haunts of men from those 
who, in the hot blood of their youth, waste their en- 
ergies and degrade their souls by deeds of violence 
and shame. If the pious and high-minded would 
but know and employ the almost divine power they 
possess of uplifting, by their more elevated nature, 
the lower spirits to a purer sphere, how much might 
they accomplish ! 

The state of things w^hich has been described 


lasted but a short time. It was only the outburst 
-of a spasmodic phrensy, which seems to seize at in- 
tervals upon that class of men who, with vacant 
minds and undeveloped reason, have yet strong pas- 
sions with nothing to wreak them upon, and ener- 
gies that clamor for active exertion. 

Americus reached his home safely, and was so 
kindly nursed that he soon recovered from the inju- 
ries he received. Thankful for his escape, he had no 
desire to punish those who had so wantonly attack- 
ed him. His only feeling toward them was a pru- 
dent desire to avoid any other encounter with them 
in any way. When Mr. Patterson told him that 
some of the rioters were taken up, and that if he 
went to the magistrate's office he might identify 
those who had assaulted him, he showed such re- 
luctance to taking the step that Mr. Patterson did 
not press it upon him. 

The lady in whose service he had met this dan- 
ger called to inquire after him, and sent him a pres- 
ent, which consoled him for his sufferings. Not long 
afterward, Mr. Patterson deciding to go to Paris to 
reside for some time, Americus gladly consented to 
accompany the family there, as he told Clara he 
had heard that " distinctions of color were unknown 
in that land." 

For two or three years all went smoothly with 
Ben and Clara, to whose family a little Charley had 



been added. Ou Mr. and Mrs. Peyton's annual vis- 
its, they always found them happy and comforta- 
ble; and although no amount of advice made them 
less improvident or extravagant, yet their hopeful- 
ness and easy tranquillity as to the futuTe at last 
infected Mrs. Peyton, who declared herself tired of 
acting the part of the skeleton at their continual 
banquet, and on her last visit contented herself with 
praising her husband's namesake, giving Maggie a 
dress, and commending Clara's housekeeping and 
Ben's steady conduct. 

But the time of trial came at last, as it surely 
does come in the life of every human being. If the 
waters of prosperity make the plants grow rank, 
and full of leaves and blossoms when fruit and seed 
may be looked for, then is adversity commissioned, 
with her unsparing fires, to extirpate every root and 
branch that has left unfulfilled the gracious purpose 
for which it was appointed. 

A few weeks of unusually variable weather in 
early winter, of warm, spring-like days, alternating 
with chilling rains and gusts of snow and sleet, 
during which Ben was more exposed than usual, 
laid him up with the inflammatory rheumatism in 
the midst of the season. Mr. AYestcott, whose fam- 
ily w^ere among the gayest and most fashionable in 
the city, was obliged to engage another coachman 
to supply Ben's place, though he promised to em- 


ploy him again as soon as he was sufficiently re- 
covered, and continued his wages to him as usual 
for the first three months of his illness ; then, find- 
ing that Ben still continued helpless, and that Cla- 
ra's time was so much occupied in nursing him and 
attending to the children, that she had but little 
opportunity for sewing, he advised him to go to the 

But this Ben was unwilling to do, neither would 
Clara consent that he should leave her. Laying 
aside all the follies and fripperies on which she had 
wasted so much time, and thought, and money, she 
sold her finery, stopped Maggie's music lessons, 
with a sigh it must be confessed, and set her to 
taking care of the baby, while in a sixpenny wrap- 
per she seated herself, like the devoted wife she 
really was, by the bedside of her suffering husband, 
and sewed day and night, till her dazzled eyes could 
hardly discern the needle in her wearied fingers. 

Bat there is nothing more dispiriting than to try 
to make up for wasted time by crowding into one 
hour the work of three. Each moment brings with 
it its own duties and its peculiar privileges, and, 
passing on with no human relentings, leaves behind 
it a blessing or a curse, as these have been per- 
formed and enjoyed, or neglected and unreceived. 

Besides, it was a heavy task to fall upon one • 
woman, to support with her unassisted fingers a 



sick man. two children, and herself. But with the 
aid of some friends of her own color, and a little 
assistance from the numerous benevolent societies 
of that most benevolent of cities. Clara contrived to 
keep the family in a decent room and in tolerable 
comfort for a year or two. 

But as Ben's disease refused to yield either to 
time or medical remedies, and the strong man lay 
helpless as a child day after day, and month after 
month, their friends grew weary of helping them, 
and fell away one by one, till even Amanda Fitz- 
walter, who had proved, by her constant sympathy, 
that her heart was at least equal to her vanity, said 

She didn't know what was to be done. Tilings 
was gettiu worse every day, and with three chil- 
lun of her own she didn't see her way clar to do 
much more. It v»'as hard times just now. but if 
Clara could scrouge along a little while, perhaps 
they'd mend.'^ 

The liberality of the poor to each other would 
surprise any one unacquainted with the fact. If it 
had not been for the sympathy and kindness of those 
hardly one degree better off than herself. Clara could 
not have borne up so long as she did under the 
troubles coming upon her. 

At length Ben began slowly to recover, and when 
reduced to their last crust, with not a cent in their 
possession to buy food for their almost naked chil- 


dren, he managed to brush the coat so long useless 
to him, and which now hung round his once athlet- 
ic form in loose wrinkles, and went with the feeble 
step of a convalescent to his old employer to claim 
his promise of a re-engagement. But during his 
long illness, Mr. Westcott had died, the family were 
separated, and Ben turned away with a great dis- 
appointment lying heavy on his heart. 

Neither his principles nor his disposition fitted 
him to meet this emergency, and for the first time 
in his life he went home reeling with intoxication ; 
having spent in drink a little money some acquaint- 
ance had lent him, with which he had intended to 
buy food for his family. 

Their downward course after this was one that 
has been so often trodden and described, that the 
particulars need no repetition. With a drunken 
husband and two children, Clara found herself un- 
able to sustain the unequal conflict with life's bur- 
dens, yet she never gave entirely up ; her self-re- 
spect grew daily weaker, and her principles less 
able to resist the evil influences around her, yet 
love for her husband and children preserved her 
from many temptations that might otherwise have 
proved too strong. 

One bitter day in February, two young ladies 
were walking with the quick, firm step of those to 
whom life is an enjoyment as well as a battle, 



throusfh the crowded thorouo:hfares of Chestnut 
Street. The keen wind brought the blood tingling 
to their cheeks, and even with their muffs and boas, 
and thickly wadded cloaks wrapped around them, 
they felt its piercing cold. A little colored girl with 
bare feet, and apparently nothing but an old blanket 
shawl wrapped around her shivering frame, stopped 
them with the entreaty, so pitiful at such seasons, 

Please ladies, give me some money to buy a little 
bread . My mother is sick, and can't work any more." 

" Have you no father ?" asked they. 
Yes, but he's sick too, and I have a little broth- 
er at home ; but the baby died yesterday, and we've 
no money to bury it." 

After asking a few more questions, the young la- 
dies decided to follow the child home to see if she 
told the truth, and if so, to render more effectual as- 
sistance than street alms w^ould prove. They were 
not overly gifted with that virtue which some good 
old divine prayed. to be delivered from, the worldly 
virtue of prudence, or they would hardly have ac- 
companied the girl through all the alleys, and turn- 
ings, and out-of-the-way places into which she led 
them. At length they came to a narrow alley 
swarmins: with neo^roes. The houses seemed like 
ant-hills, filled to the top, and the sidewalks were 
crowded with their overflowinors. Fat black faces 
darkened every window. Stout, lazy-looking men 


lounged in the doors, and, cold as it was, children 
of all ages and complexions were tumbling, fight- 
ing, and swearing upon the side-walks. 

One of the young ladies was alarmed, and wish- 
ed to turn back ; but the other, whose benevolence 
would have led her unshrinkingly through a battle- 
field when the contest was at its height, pressed on 
without giving a glance around her. The child 
went to the door of a cellar, that seemed rather like 
a little opening in the pavement, and gliding down, 
beckoned to the ladies to follow her. Even the more 
courageous one of the two hesitated to do this, while 
the other held her back imploringly. During this 
moment of hesitation, a tall, gaunt mulatto woman, 
with wild and glaring eyes, approached them. 

" Gro back, young ladies," she exclaimed, with a 
theatrical start and gesture ; what are such as you 
doing here ? This is no place for you. Has your 
senses quite vanished from you, that you come to 
such a bottomless pit ? My daughter ! I lost her 
here ; and I come to look for her morning and night. 
But I never want no other mother to feel what I've 
felt. G-o back this minute, and if any one dares to 
say a word to you — " and she flourished a broken 
cane she held in her hand. 

Her manner and words so alarmed the more timid 
one that she could hardly stand, and the other young 
lady was about to retrace her steps, quite unwill- 



ingly though, when she caught sight of a gentle- 
man approaching. 

There is Mr. Lyndsay, the city missionary," 
said she ; how fortunate !" and beckoning to him, 
he hurried to her assistance. 

He was evidently known in the alley ; for the 
commotion and bustle that had been caused by the 
entrance of the young ladies was quieted at his ap- 
proach, and the woman who had accosted them so 
singularly welcomed him with an approving smile 
and gesture, and, bidding him take good care of the 
ladies, left them to him, and disappeared in a house 
near by. 

" That is a half-deranged woman," observed Mr. 
Lyndsay ; the loss of her only child has affected 
her intellect ; but, notwithstanding that, she has 
great influence among these demi-brutes. If it had 
not been for her, I should hardly have met with the 
tolerance 1 have here. But how did you happen to 
come to such a place ?" 

We were following a little beggar-girl home, to 
see if the sad story she told us was really true, and 
were so intent upon Ivceping sight of her, that we 
hardly noticed where she was leading us. She flit- 
ted down those steps and disappeared in that dark 
cellar at our feet, and we are almost afraid to pur- 
sue our investigations further ; yet she was so mis- 
erably clad, and told such a piteous tale, that I do 



not like to go home without finding out the truth 
about her." 

" If you will trust the matter to me," said Mr. 
Lyndsay, " I will attend to it, and report to you 
this afternoon, if you like." 

Thank you," replied the young lady; ^'that 
will be the best way, I suppose. But they are 
probably in immediate want of fire and food, and 
on so cold a day as this there ought not to be an 
hour's delay in providing for their necessities. I 
will leave some money with you that you can spend 
for them as you think best;" and the young lady 
drew her purse from her muff". 

Put up your purse. Miss Sumner," exclaimed 
Mr. Lyndsay, hastily; ''wait till we are out of this 

But his warning came too late. A slender, sharp- 
looking colored boy, who wanted but a shade or two 
of being white, had been hovering unnoticed near 
them, listening to their conversation. No sooner 
did his keen eyes catch sight of the purse, weighed 
down by its burden, than with a sudden dart upon 
it he clutched it and sprang into the nearest house. 

Mr. Lyndsay looked distressed, and Miss Sumner 
glanced at her empty hand with blank dismay. 

" It is my whole quarter's allowance," said she; 
papa gave it to me this morning." 

" I am afraid you will never recover it," said 



Mr. Lynd.-say. There is no one in the whole 
street but Judith, the crazy woman, who would 
not, I think, for a little share of the profits, assist 
the boy in concealing himself But let me take 
you away from here as soon as possible," added 
he, seeing that a new commotion was exciting this 
hive of drones. I will return and see what can 
be done about your loss, and your proteges also." 

The young ladies were very glad to accept his 
offer, for Miss Sumner's companion was trembling 
with terror, and Miss Sumner herself had lost some 
of her courage with her purse. 

They had but just turned the corner, and were 
breathing more freely, when their att^*jntion was 
attracted by a loud shout behind them. On look- 
ing back, they saw Judith running toward them 
with the purse in her hand. She had seen the 
whole affair from a window, and as the boy hap- 
pened to take refuge in the same house with her- 
self, she flew upon him, and with a celerity and 
adroitness equal to his own, snatched his prize 
from his grasp and ran with it after its owner. 
This had caused the bustle that alarmed Mr. 
Lyndsay and the young ladies. 

Miss Sumner's eye took a hasty survey of the 
woman's dress. She saw that it was arranged 
with a certain decency and neatness, which showed 
that her old habits of order and regard for her per- 


sonal appearance had not quite deserted her ; bat 
it looked old and thin, and on this bitter day she 
braved the cold air without either bonnet or shawl. 

The young lady drew a small gold piece from 
her purse and offered it to her. 

^yhat do you give me this for?" she burst 
forth, with increased wildness of look and flighti- 
ness of manner ; is it for my honesty ? Do you 
dare to pay me for my honesty ? You rich folks 
think you can buy us poor ones, soul and body; 
but I'm above you all. I live up in the sky with 
the Lord and his angels, where you daren't come — 
where you daren't come, with all your precious gold 
and silver ;" and she glared close into Miss Sumner's 
eyes with her own, in whose depths of gloom no 
ray of brightness shone. 

It was for the trouble you had taken for me 
that I offered you that," said Miss Sumner, quietly 
and soothingly, not for your honesty." 

Trouble!" repeated Judith, with a wild laugh; 
**ha! ha! you call that trouble, do you? Oh! 
child, child !" with a sudden change to the deepest 
sadness of tone and look, if you had a husband 
and brother in the penitentiary for nine long years 
for loving money too well, and a daughter in the 
cold ground because she wanted to live like a lady, 
and keep her hands soft, and wear silks and velvets 
like you white ladies, then you would know what 
E 2 



trouble was. Take back this monev. or Til flinsr 
it in the gutter ^Yhere it belongs." 

Miss Sumner took it, and Judith disappeared 
round the corner. Mr. Lyndsay accompanied them 
a little ^vay. and then returned to fulfill his promise 
of ascertaining the condition of the occupants of the 

He descended the rickety steps, and stood for a 
few minutes to let his eyes become accustomed to 
the gloom of the place. He heard a faint voice 
speaking at intervals from the further corner of the 
room, and gradually there came out in the dim light 
the figure of a woman stretched on the ground (for 
the cellar had no floor) ; in another corner lay what 
seemed a bundle of rags, breathing heavily ; and a 
little boy, with hardly an article of clothing upon 
him. was crouchinsr amonsr the smoulderins^ ashes 
in the chimney corner. The girl who had led the 
ladies to this desolate abode stood near the fire- 
place, with her large eyes, whiHi glittered unnatu- 
rally in her thin face, fixed with a painfully eager 
look on the compassionate visitor. 

The least distressing object in the miserable room 
was the dead body of a babe, whose life was as yet 
counted only by months and days. The ineffable 
repose of its softly-rounded features — the perfect se- 
renity and peace stamped on its innocent face — the 
once restless hands, whose light, uncertain touch 


had thrilled the mother's heart, now gently laid over 
in each other with their dimples frozen into them — 
all that wonderful structure, so perfect and incom- 
prehensible in its minutest details, laid aside by its 
Maker, while yet the spirit that informed it was un- 
conscious of the glorious gift it had received — in a 
word, all the halo of blessedness and heaven that 
lies around the couch of the innocent dead, now 
seemed to shed its sanctity and silence over that 
most dreary place and its occupants. 

The reader will already have surmised that they 
who were reduced to this deep degradation were no 
other than Ben and Clara ; and that not poverty 
alone, but crime, had been at work before they could 
sink so far. Ben had become a confirmed drunk- 
ard, not so much from love of drink as to drown 
thought and remorse ; and Clara, after trying in 
vain to arouse in him a better spirit, had given up 
in despair, and allowed matters to take their own 
course, without attempting to do the little in her 
power to enable them to retain their old position. 

But by how many cords does our heavenly Fa- 
ther draw back the wanderers to his fold I In this, 
almost the lowest depth to which human nature 
could sink, there came to Clara this babe, like a 
dove from the ark of Grod's mercy ; and though, even 
as the dove found the earth inhospitable and un- 
kind, so the babe lay unwelcomed and uncherished 



on its mother's breast, yet six months of helpless 
loveliness and endearing trust could not but soften a 
heart hardened by despair rather than vice ; and 
when, to complete its mission, the child's soul took 
its flight for heaven, it went bearing for its olive 
branch the repentant prayers and tears of its sor- 
row-stricken mother. 

But though prayers that had long been strange 
to her lips came from her heart, mingled with earn- 
est resolutions of amendment and the bitterest pangs 
of remorse, yet, situated as she was, sick, cold, and 
hungry, with a husband who answered every appeal 
with a drunken growl, and no human aid near, she 
could not see how she could put her resolves into 

It was without her knowledge, while she lay with 
her head buried in her hands, sighing, moaning, and 
ejaculating brief and earnest prayers for mercy and 
deliverance, that Maggie had slipped out on what 
had been for a long time her daily errand ; and now, 
as if in answer to her cries, there stood before her 
the man whose business it was to seek out the poor 
and needy 

Mr. Lindsay, with the promptness of true charity, 
soon had a fire blazing on the hearth, and an ample 
dinner provided for them. The pleasant warmth 
drew Ben from his corner, and he tried to utter a few 
expressions of gratitude as he hung over the blaze. 


The good missionary became interested in Clara's 
account of their sufferings ; who, though she tried 
to shelter Ben's fault under the plea of illness, re- 
lated every thing else so artlessly and simply that 
Mr. Lindsay was convinced of its truth. From the 
Dorcas Society of a neighboring church he obtained 
garments for herself and the children, wood from 
another benevolent society, and with the money 
Miss Sumner had intrusted to him he hired a better 
room, to which he had them removed immediately. 

Miss Sumner visited them there, and with her 
assistance Mr. Lindsay discovered some old patrons 
of Clara, who were very glad to find again the neat 
seamstress after whom they had made many inef- 
fectual inquiries. 

''If you are willing to work hard, Clara," said 
Mr. Lindsay, ''I will promise you enough to do." 

''Yes, sir," replied Clara; "I am too glad to get 
work not to do the best I can — 'deed I will ; but 
Ben hain't got no ambition left. I'm afraid for him. 
May be, sir, if you would talk to him pleasant, he 
might feel better." 

Mr. Lindsay sought an opportunity to speak to 
him alone, and tried by encouraging words to awak- 
en some of his old spirit in him. 

Ben was employed in splitting up a load of wood, 
a job that had accidentally fallen to him, and, stop- 
ping in his work, he said, shaking his head, 



'Taint of the least use to talk to me that way, 
Mr. Lindsay. I've tried my best, and I ain't any 
thing but a nigger, and never shall be. Pm just as 
good and respectable now as when I had twenty 
dollars a month, and my wife dressed like a lady; 
and what's the use of doing any thing more. You 
talk to me about educating my children ; but what's 
the use of it. You see that black man that went 
by us just now, and held up his head so high when 
he saw me standing here. Well, I know'd him 
very well wonst, when I first came to the city. He 
was a head waiter then at parties, and is now, I 
believe ; and he has been laying up money all his 
life. He's wor^h now twenty thousand dollars at 
least, and what good will it do him or his children? 
The more they know, the wuss it will be for 'em ; 
for they won't keep company with their own color, 
and white folks won't associate with them, and thar 
they are shut up by themselves : and what good do 
their Brussels carpets and pianny do them. I'd like 
to know? They may try till they split, and thpy 
won't be any thing but just what I am, a nigger 
that every body despises." 

No person who does their duty," replied Mr. 
Lyndsay, is ever despised, no matter what his 
color may be." 

" Perhaps, Mr. Lyndsay, if the world was all made 
up of good people likf^ you, that might be so. But 


people for the most part don't stop to ask if I do 
my duty. They see that I ain't a white man, and 
push me out of the way. Don't you believe, Mr. 
Lyndsay, that Clary is a great deal more respecta- 
ble and well-behaved than some of these poor, mis- 
erable white women about here." 

" Certainly I do," said Mr. Lyndsay ; " Clara is 
a good wife, and is trying hard now to bring up 
her children well." 

" Clary is a good woman, Mr. Lyndsay; it was 
• all my fault that we were in that hole where you 
found us. She strived and strus^s^led as hard as 


any poor woman could, but she couldn't keep me 
from drinking, and at last she had to give up. But 
she's never given me a hard word all the time we've 
been together, and if I leave off drink, as I am go- 
ing to do, it will be for no other reason but that I 
don't want to see her and the children suffer. Well, 
now, good as she is, and nice and handsome as she 
can make herself look, if I was to take her in the 
cars, and they was full, the meanest and dirtiest 
white woman, or man either, would have a seat, 
and she would have to stand all the way ; and if it 
was the steam-boat, she'd have to sleep on deck, and, 
like as not, not get any thing to eat — always be 
shoved a one side, as if she wa'n't made by the same 
God. Oh, Mr. Lyndsay, it's mighty hard for a man 
like me, that could be as good as any body, if his 



skin were a shade or two lighter, to be kept down 
so all the time, and not get drunk or wicked.'' 

Ben had a great deal more to say, for he had 
thought mure, in his temjDorary intervals of sobriety 
during the last two years, than ever before in his 
life ; and this was the first time that his thoughts 
had found utterance. But, as he was becoming a 
little excited, Mr. Lyndsay, fearing he might be 
soon addressing an audience instead of an individ- 
ual, left him, promising to call and see him soon. 

To all religious exhortations Ben turned a deaf 
ear, and after a time grew restive under them, and 
sometimes almost rude. To Clara's remonstran- 
ces he replied, 

Preaching is very well, I ain't nothin' against 
it. I wouldn't mind doing a little of it myself. 
But to keep at a feller from mornin' till night, with 
'Do this — it's your duty,' and - bear that — it's your 
duty too ;' and if you are knocked down, get up and 
rub the mud off, and say • Thank you, for that's your 
duty ;' and if you work hard all day, and get noth- 
ing but a cuss when you ask for your pay at night, 
why go home and make a special prayer for the man 
before you go to sleep, for that's another duty — this 
is coming it rather too strong. Mr. Lyndsay is a 
good man himself : but if he'd only keep his preach- 
ing for the white people, and let them practice it on 
us, it would do a gi*eat deal more good, I think.'' 


But though Ben grumbled in this way, stiii the 
oversight Mr. Lyndsay kept upon him was of great 
service in keeping him firm in his resolution to be 
temperate and industrious. A situation was pro- 
cured for him with some difficulty, w^here, although 
the w^ages were low" and the work heavy, and not 
connected with horses in the most remote degree, 
yet he performed his duties faithfully, and brought 
home the money to his wife every Saturday night. 

It grieved Clara very much that she could not 
induce him to renew his old practice of accompa- 
nying her to church on Sunday, but he had heard 
enough pious talk, he said, to last him the rest of 
his life ; and so he passed the day prhicipally in 
trying to keep asleep. 

During all this time, iVmericus remained in Par- 
is, and Mr. Peyton had been prevented, by affairs 
connected with his family, from visiting the North, 
so that their apparent neglect, which weighed heav- 
ily on the minds of Ben and Clara, vras afterward 
satisfactorally accounted for. As often happens, 
w^hen trials are sent upon the weak and dependent, 
human aid is put far away, that they may learn 
more readily the hard lesson of faith and trust in 
the unseen arm of the All-Father. 





Amid all life's quests, 
There seems but worthy one — to do men good. 


During one of his summer excursions, Mr. Peyton 
stopped for a few days at Niagara, on his way, with 
his family, to Montreal and Q,uebec. While walking 
about on the Canada side of the Falls, stopping now 
and then to examine and admire the grand spectacle 
from some new point of view, Mrs. Peyton's eye was 
caught by a beautiful flower swaying on its slender 
stem on a steep slope, high above her head. 

The hillside was covered with broken, shinorlinor 
rocks, and from the midst of these, without even a 
blade of grass to bear it company, grew up this lit- 
tle delicate flower. Unheeding the overshadowing 
grandeur of its mighty rival, yet strengthened and 
refreshed by the few drops of spray now and then 
flung upon it out of the profusion of its abundance, 
it went on gathering in some mysterious way every 
day new strength and beauty from the uncongenial 


earth around, until at last it lifted its blue eye to 
the clear sky and soft air of that delicious June day, 
a perfect flower, speaking its Maker's praise as clear- 
ly with its still small voice, as did its glorious rival, 
whose grand anthem went pealing ceaselessly on 
day and night, winter and summer. 

There was a vein of poetry in Virginia's mind 
leading her to invest material objects with conscious 
life and meaning, and the voices of the flower and 
the cataract spoke as distinctly to her heart as if 
her ear had heard their uttered wwds. She was 
fond too of memorials, and had retained her girlish 
habit of collecting and preserving flowers and leaves, 
or some other characteristic memento, from all places 
of note she visited. 

She wished to obtain this flower, which had awak- 
ened such a train of pleasant thoughts in her heart ; 
and as Mr. Peyton was a little distance in advance 
with an elderly lady on his arm, she attempted to 
climb the slope herself. But the stones slipped un- 
der her feet, and, recalling a fatal accident that had 
occurred near there not long before, she reluctantly 
gave up the attempt. 

I will get it for you, ma'am," said a voice be- 
hind her, and a man sprang up the difficult ascent, 
and, returning, offered her the little blossom. 

She took it, and looking at him to thank him, 
recognized an old acquaintance. 



'^Why, EdAvard,** she exclaimed, is it pos- 
sible !" 

''Yes, ilrs. Peyton," said he; '-I knew you as 
soon as I saw you walking across the bridge, and I 
ran down to ask you about all the people in Clinton. 
I was afraid, if I waited, you might get over the other 

You wouldn't venture over there, Edward 
asked Mrs. Peyton, with a smile. 

Xo, indeed, ma'am, I had too hard work to get 
here to put myself in the least danger again.'' 

Mrs. Peyton gave him all the information she 
could recall of their mutual acquaintances in Clin- 
ton, for they had been born and brought up in the 
same town ; and though the broad gulf that separates 
the serf from the freeborn, the black from the white 
race, lay between them, yet integrity and a manli- 
ness that commanded respect on the one hand, with 
a kind and sympathetic nature on the other, spanned 
the gulf, and made them meet with a degree of 
pleasure and interest that only those can under- 
stand who have been brought up from their infancy 
to look upon the negro as a member of the same 

And now," said Mrs. Peyton, when she had 
finished telling him of the welfare of his mother and 
sisters, as well as of all his other friends, " how did 
you manage to get here ?" 


It was a great deal more easy than I thought 
it would be," replied Edward ; do you remember 
Miss Lucy's wedding, Miss Virginia?" unconsciously 
using the most familiar name. 

Yes, it was not long after mine." 

Well, my old master sent me two or three days 
beforehand with her silver, up in the country whar 
she was going to live. The other servants had been 
taking up every thing else to make the house com- 
fortable, and I was to take care of every thing, and 
have it all in order for her when she came. I had 
been contriving ways and means for a long time for 
running away, and had had, I reckon, twenty differ- 
ent plans, but they didn't come to any thing. Still, 
my mind was made up, that if I had to wait forty 
year, I would run away at the end of it, if I had a 
fair chance, for my old master treated me so bad 
that I never had a happy moment. He didn't beat 
me so much, but he didn't give me a minute's peace, 
and he used to call me all the hard names he could 
lay his tongue to. But, yet, he used to trust me 
with all his business, and he had made a standinsr 
order that whenever he got drunk — and he used to 
have a frolic every two or three weeks — I should 
attend to him. I have had as much as three thou- 
sand dollars in my care at a time, when he had 
been selling his crops and got drunk before he put 
the money in the bank ; and yet, though he never 



lost a cent by me, he'd keep on abusing me till my 
patience fairly gave out." 

I know he was a hard master," said Virginia ; 
there was not a person in Clinton who was not 
glad when they found you were really off." 

I took the silver up to Miss Lucy's place," con- 
tinued Edward, and then I thought, as they would 
all be so busy at home that it would be at least a 
week before they would find out that I was gone, 
that I could not have a better time, and so I start- 
ed. I had ten dollars, that I had earned in different 
ways, and had saved unbeknown to my master, or 
he would have taken it away, and that, with the 
clothes I had on, was all I had in the world. That 
lasted me till I got to some little town in New York, 
and then when I was not more than a day's journey 
from here, I was taken sick, and had to lie there a 
week. Some of the colored folks about took me in, 
and took care of me till I was well again, and as 
soon as I could hold myself up, I set out to finish 
my journey on foot. That was the hardest part of 
the way, for I was so weak I could hardly crawl 
along, and I felt every moment my old master's 
^ hand on my shoulder. But I never heard any thing 
from him, and I was so glad when my feet touched 
this ground, that it seeraed to me I felt well right 
away. I have been mighty homesick too, since I 
have been here, and wanted to see all the people in 


Clinton but one. I have never heard the first word 
from my mother or sisters, or any one else there, 
since I left till now, and 'deed it does me good to 
hear all about them." 

Have you ever wanted to go back ?" asked Mrs. 

No, Miss Virginia, I might if I had had a dif- 
ferent master, for I had a very hard time the first 
winter here. I 'most froze to death, and starved too. 
But I have a good place now, and am doing very 

" Do the people generally treat you better than 
they did at home ?" 

No, Miss Virginia, nothing like as well. They 
don't seem as natural to us, nor we to them, maybe, 
as those we were raised with. Somehow, they don't 
seem to have the same consideration for us, and I 
know some here that would be very glad to get back 
if they were sure they would not be punished. But 
that's not my feelings. I wouldn't 'vise any one 
to come here, though, that wa'n't willing to work 
harder, and rough it as much as they ever did in 
their lives." 

By this time they had overtaken Mr. Peyton, who 
also knew and recognized Edward. He asked him 
many questions as to the condition of the colored 
people in Canada ; and Edward's answers, while 
showing that he had observed and thought a great 



deal on the subject, gave a faithful, yet sad picture, 
of the position of his countrymen in a land which 
needed all the amenities and kindnesses of social 
life to soften the severities of its climate, so partic- 
ularly ill suited to the African. 

The same exclusion from all places open to the 
meanest ^Yhite man, the same disregard of their com- 
fort, and open contempt for their color, made Cana- 
da any thing but a pleasant place of refuge. ^'It 
is impossible," thought Mr. Peyton, while meditating 
on this mysterious dispensation of Providence, this 
placing one race in the midst of another, whose 
feelings instinctively rebel against all union on the 
footing of equality ; it is impossible but that some 
great purpose is to be worked out by these great 

When I was a boy, I accompanied my father to 
Quebec," said Mr. Peyton ; " we had a servant with 
us, a man named Isaac, who left us soon after we 
reached Canada. He must be an old man now. 
Have you ever happened to meet him ?" 

'•Yes, sir," replied Edward; ''he is living at a 
little village not far from this place. It is a settle- 
ment of colored people, and if you would like to see 
how most of them live here, you might go there. 
I know Isaac very well. He often talks about old 
Virginny to me, and says he w^as a great fool for 
leaving it. But he's most always^ sick, and that 


keeps him down-hearted. He'd be glad to see you, 
I know, for he don't talk about any thing else but 
old times." 

I will stop to see him," said Mr. Peyton, " for 
he was a sfood servant." 


Accordingly, a few days after, taking Edward as 
his guide, Mr. Peyton drove over to the little collec- 
tion of hovels and wretched tenements that w^as 
dignified with the name of village. There was not 
a house in it that seemed able to protect the inmates 
from the changes of the weather, even during the 
summer months ; and it was hard to imagine how 
they could make themselves comfortable in the cold 

The nucleus of the place was a large frame house, 
that had been built by some wealthy land-owner in 
that part of the country. But he had long since 
deserted it as untenantable, and it had fallen to its 
present occupants as a matter of course. With its 
paint washed off, its boards dropping away, and 
with hardly a pane of glass left unbroken in the 
windows, it still was by far the best dwelling in 
the place. The others were mere shantys, or huts, 
put up hastily when it was found impossible to obtain 
shelter in the big house, and intended at first only 
for temporary abodes. But they were never unoccu- 
pied, for as fast as one family vacated them another 
made its appearance ready to take their places. 



Mr. Peyton could hardly help smiling as he ob- 
served how little change of place or position seemed 
to affect the strongly-marked yet unobtrusive char- 
acteristics of the African. Here in Canada he found 
the same inertness, the same easy yielding to cir- 
cumstances and aversion to labor, and the same 
good-nature that had so tried his patience in Vir- 
ginia. Every other man and woman had a pipe in 
their mouths, and, dirty and ragged, they lounged 
about in the warm sun, basking in its beams, and 
wearing the placid self-complacent look of those 
who had voted care an impertinence, and labor an 
unnecessary degradation. 

As he observed them with the eye of a philoso- 
pher and philanthropist, they gazed back upon him 
with the open-eyed curiosity of the vacant mind. 
Not often had such a presence dignified the path 
they fondly called a street. Mr. Peyton had the 
true patrician stamp, and it gave a value to his 
least w^ord or act far above its intrinsic worth. 
From the inexplicable charm of this influence, at 
once innate and adventitious, no one can wholly 
free themselves, much less the uneducated, who 
yield to its sweet authority an obedience not the 
less entire that it springs as much from love as 

It was easy for the gazers to discover that he 
was a Southern planter ; many of them knew the 


little signs and tokens which gave so distinct a 
character to that class, too well to be mistaken. 
The carelessly-fitting, yet scrupulously neat dress, 
w4th its abundance of spotless linen, the slow and 
dignified movement, the air at once commanding 
and benign, told a story easily read by the least 

" If I didn't know dat old mas'r had been dead 
dese many years, I should say dat was him," 
thought old Isaac, as Mr. Peyton drew near the 
door in which he was sittins^. When the strano^e 
gentleman stopped before him, the old man raised 
his trembling form, and gazed with the anxious, 
uncertain look of age in his face. 

Don't you remember me, Isaac ?" asked Mr. 

Oh ! it's Mas'r Charles ! it's Mas'r Charles !" 
and Isaac's whole face was convulsed with emotion, 
while tears streamed down his cheeks. I never 
tought to see you or any of de fam'ly dis side de 
grave again, Mas'r Charles ; and you was a little 
boy when I lef you ; but I know'd you as soon as 
you smiled ; and I should ha' know'd you by dat 
any whar." 

''You have" had a long life given to you, Isaac," 
continued Mr. Peyton. 

''Yes, Mas'r Charles, I knows dat; but mostly 
I feels like saying, with ole father Jacob, ' Few and 


evil have the days of the years of my life been,' 
for I has had mo' trouble than I know'd how to 
bar ; but de Lord has helped me, and now Ts so 
near to Him that I feels sometimes as if I could 
look straight into glory." • 

You are happy now, then," said Mr. Peyton. 

Yes, MasT Charles, my fight is mos' over, and 
now I'm waitin' with patience for de comin' of de 
Lord. I feel fo' true that He won't try me much 

*'Is your wife still living ?" 

''No, Mas'r Charles; dat was my fust great 
'fliction. I had worked hard five years to get 
money enough to buy her freedom, and den she 
came here and took sick directly, and only lived 
seven month. Den I bought my two boys ; dey 
was little boys, and I didn't have much trouble in 
gettin' 'em here ; but one of 'em died two year ago, 
and I has his two chillun to see to, while dere 
mother and my other son works for dem and me 
too. But 'tain't much to work for me now, and 
dough dey's as willin' as can be, I feels dat I sha'n't 
trouble dem long." 

'' Have you lived here ever since you left us ?" 
asked Mr. Peyton. 

'' Oh, no, Mas'r Charles I dis is a mighty poor 
place to live in. I u.sed to be a waiter at hotels and 
gentlemen's families till I was too old, and den I 


lived in the city, and did mos' any thin' I could get 
to do. At last, when I couldn't do no more, I went 
to live in a house jus' at the edge of de town, where 
a great many colored folks used to come. Dey used 
to live in de woods, and wander about all summer, 
and den crowd as many as de could in dat house, and 
some oders near it, when de col' weather came on. 
I didn't like it much ; but it was better dan dis, for 
white ladies used to come and talk to us sometimes, 
and see if we wanted any thin' ; and we had a 
church to go to, which we haven't here — and de 
Sabber day is just like any oder day ; but de .peo- 
ple roun' us said that it was a nuisance havin' so 
many niggers in de houses about; for dar was some 
on 'em dat didn't do nothin' but beg, and maybe 
steal a little ; and so one cold night, when it was 
rainin' hard, dey set de houses on lire and burned 
'em down to the groun', and I had to take de chil- 
lun in my ole arms and hoP em close up to me all 
night to keep 'em warm, and in de mornin' my son 
hunted us vip and brought us here, and I 'spects to 
finish my life in dis spot. 'Tain't much matter 'bout 
me now ; but I can't bar to tink dat de chillun will 
grow up where dey hear so little 'bout de blessed 

Mr. Peyton remained some time longer talking 
with this old servant of his house, and left him at 
last cheered by a visit from one of that family he 



revered so trulv. thousrh a natural instinct had led 
him to desert their protection. Tseither were his 
bodily wants forgotten, and the money his old mas- 
ter's son left with him provided for his few necessi- 
ties duringr the rest of his life, which lasted, indeed, 
but about six weeks after this interview. 

When a person's thoughts are turned steadily in 
one direction, it is wonderful how much can be seen 
in a short space of time ; and Mr. Peyton's investi- 
gations, thorough and patient as they were, only 
served to convince him more and more that Canada 
was no pleasant abiding-place for the blacks, and 
that, held far apart from all intercourse and commun- 
ion with those who occupied the superior position, 
regarded as machines rather than as living souls, 
with little attention paid to their religious training, 
it was fully as probable that they would deteriorate 
as improve by a residence in that country. He saw 
nothing to make him feel that it would be any ad- 
vantage to the laborers on his plantation to change 
their residence from Virginia to Canada. On the 
contrary, he became daily more convinced that his 
servants held decidedly the most advantageous po- 
sition, both for their comfort in this world and oppor- 
tunity for preparation for the next. He felt that 
he would not be willing to expose those who had 
been given into his charge — for whose temporal and 
eternal welfare he had been trained from his child- 


hood to feel responsible — to the temptations, difficul- 
ties, and privations that hedged them in on every 
side in the land whose proud boast it is ^'that no 
slave can breathe its air." 

With a single, earnest wish to benefit his servants 
at any self-sacrifice — a wish that time, and thought, 
and patient endeavor had elevated almost to a holy 
passion, and made one of the ruling motives of his 
life — he felt that it would be unjust, both to whites 
and blacks, to throw upon society those who have as 
yet proved themselves a burden and a drain, rather 
than an assistance, whenever the conduct of their 
life is given in their own hands. 

Of course, only the masses are here intended. 
There have been noble exceptions ; and, freed from 
the crushing superiority of the w^hite man, they 
have risen up more quickly and in greater numbers 
than their best friends could have ventured to hope 
— ^but not in America. 





I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to be ; 
The first low wash of waves where soon 

Shall roll a human sea. 


The truth of Macbiavelli's maxim, that to 
make a servile people free, is as difficult as to make 
a free people slaves," had often occurred to Mr. 
Peyton's mind, while recalling the results of his ex- 
periments, yet w^ithout disheartening him ; for be- 
tween difficulty and impossibility is a great differ- 
ence, and he knew that few objects of any import- 
ance can be attained without labor and disappoint- 

In the month of December, 1816, he went to 
"Washington on business. He had intended to re- 
turn by Christmas-day, and his family knew that 
he had arranged his affairs so that they need not 
prevent him, yet he wrote that he was detained 
by business of importance, and that for the first 
time in his life he could not pass that season, so 


festive a one in Virginia, with his wife and chil- 

He reached home for New-year's day, and when 
the children at last consented to be carried off to 
bed, and the older members of the family were left to 
talk in quiet, Mr. Peyton, addressing his sister, said. 
At last, Margaret, I have a plan to propose to 
you, which I think even you, with all your practi- 
cal wisdom and cool judgment, must approve. You 
objected to my making my servants free, for you 
said that, whether they were nominally bond or free, 
or whether they lived at the North or the South, 
the colored people held, ih reality, the position of 
slaves ; and that as long as this was the case, they 
had better have the protection and assistance which 
the relation of master should, and often does, give 
to them. We will not discuss that matter now, but 
what do you say to placing them in an isolated and 
independent position, where they can develop them- 
selves, free from the presence and overshadowing 
superiority of the white race." 

If they can govern themselves, which is yet to 
be proved," replied Margaret, that would be the 
best course to take. I would like to see it fairly 
tried, though I confess I am not sanguine as to its 

Several of our wisest statesmen and philanthro- 
pists have been engaged in forming such a plan," 
F 2 



continued Mr. Peyton ; " my delay in Washington 
was caused by ray desire to assist as far as I could 
in carrying it out ; for the more I thought about it, 
the more did the grandeur and simplicity of the 
design strike me, and the more did I feel persuaded 
of its practicability and ultimate success." 

How is the idea to be carried out ?" asked Mar- 

''I will read you part of the constitution adopted 
by a society at which I was present, where Henry 
Clay presided, and, with John Randolph and Elias 
B. Caldwell, spoke eloquently and ably in favor of 
this object. 

Article I. — A society shall be formed, and called 
the American Colonization Society, for colonizing the 
free people of color of the United States. 

"Article II, — The object to which its attention 
shall be exclusively directed is, to promote and ex- 
ecute a plan for colonizing, with their consent, the 
free people of color residing in our country, in Af- 
rica, or such other place as Congress shall see fit. 
And the society shall act, to effect this object, in 
co-operation with the general government, and such 
of the states as may adopt regulations upon the 
subject. Hon. Bushrod Washington has been chosen 
the president of the society." 

It is certainly a great idea ; I hope it may prove 
a successful one," said Margaret. 


Many of those who go out to Africa, where I 
think a suitable location will be found for them, 
will not only receive a benefit themselves from the 
change, but act as missionaries to the heathen 
around them. Even when they do not teach them 
directly, which perhaps in many cases is hardly to 
be expected, the silent influence of their regular and 
Christian mode of life must produce a great effect. 
If I were to tell the hopes and expectations that fill 
my heart when I think upon this subject, I should 
be regarded as an enthusiast.'^ 

^'Are there any of your own servants that could 
be induced to try the experiment?" asked Mrs. Fair- 

I have been thinking that it would be the very 
place for Junius," replied Mr. Peyton. I will speak 
to him about it to-morrow." 

He needs some encouragement," said Virginia. 
" Nathan told me a few days ago that Junius was 
going to give up studying, for it only made him un- 
happy, and come and help his father on the farm. 
]S"athan seemed a good deal troubled about it, for 
Junius has always been his pride." 

Junius listened with evident pleasure to Mr. Pey- 
ton's account of the formation of the Colonization 
Society and its purposes. Accustomed to reverence 
his master as a person of superior wisdom and good- 
ness, his sympathies were readily enlisted in favor 


of any thing that had excited Mr. Peyton's appro- 

He went over to the farm to talk with his father 
about it. IN'athan. namrally averse to change and 
unenterprisincr. considerably damped his son's zeal 
by the discouraging manner with which he made his 
comments on the untried enterprise. His wife, too, 
did not at all like the idea of emigrating to an un- 
known and heathen country with her six children ; 
and Junius, who had come full of warmth and ar- 
dor, found himself in a little while quite overpower- 
ed by the opposition he met with. 

At last he proposed an adjournment to Keziah's 
cabin, that they might hear her opinion. It was a 
still, cold, starlight night, and as they approached 
they heard her voice, reading with great emphasis 
and feeling. 

Stop a minute," said Sally ; let's yer if dat 
ain't ' Sinners, turn — why will ye die?' " 

They stopped to listen, and found that Sally was 

She reads dat yer hymn to Polydore every 
night," continued Sally ; it was de fust ting dat 
struck her heart, and she tinks it will 'feet him, if 
any ting will." 

''Ain't uncle Polydore a Christian?" asked Ju- 

^* Bless you, honey, yes, dese many years; but 


Keziah calls him a backslider, and I dun no what 
else, because he will go to sleep in church, and he 
takes it all as meek as a lamb ; but he is a good 
man, fo' true, if any body is." 

When they opened the cabin door, they found 
Keziah sitting upright in a rocking-chair, which had 
been her first purchase for herself, and reading by 
the light of a blazing fire of pine wood. Polydore 
was gazing mildly and sleepily upon her, endeavor- 
ing, hopelessly, to take in the full meaning of a hymn 
he had heard till he knew it by heart, with a pa- 
tient wonder at his own want of feelino: in beino^ so 
little moved by it. 

As soon as Keziah comprehended the plan which 
Junius explained to her, she entered into it with all 
her heart. 

'^It is the very place for me," exclaimed she; ^'I 
would go there to-morrow if I could." 

Oh, Keziah, don't say so ; if you only knew what 
I know 'bout Africa, you would never want to see it 
again," said Polydore, wide awake for once. Don't 
go, Keziah, please do, don't. I would rather die dan 

Nobody said any thin' about your goin'," retort- 
ed Keziah ; stay here, if you want to, and be a nig- 
ger all your life ; but I thinks defFerently." 

Polydore made no answer to this unkind speech, 
but sat brooding in silence for some time, while the 



rest were engaged in an animated discussion. At 
last he broke forth in a history of his early years. 
For the first time in his life he was almost eloquent, 
while relating, in his broken language, all that he 
had seen and suffered. 

He spoke of the devil-man. a frightful figure that 
came out of a thicket near his native village, and 
frightened every one by his terrible bowlings. The 
death of some one, by the ordeal of gedu or sassy- 
water, a poisonous opiate made from the bark of the 
sassy-tree, often followed the appearance of this fig- 
ure, in consequence of having been accused by it of 
being a witch. Polydore's father fell a victim to this 
practice. He had been out, in company with many 
of the other fighting men of his tribe, to procure 
slaves to carry down to some slave-ships that were 
waiting for a cargo ; they returned with a train 
of captives ; but in the skirmishes, the head man 
had been slightly wounded. From some cause his 
wound did not heal, and he died in consequence. 
A cry of witchcraft was immediately raised, and 
Polydore's father was pointed out as the suspected 
person ; the trial by sassy- water proving unfavora- 
ble, he was compelled to drink more till he died. 

Polydore mentioned many other of their cruel 
customs, and said at last that, not long after his 
father's death, the whole village was roused one 
night by a savage yell. As the startled inhabit- 


ants gazed out to ascertain the cause of the alarm, 
they saw that they were now the victims of that 
fate they had so often brought upon others. Resist- 
ance was useless, for they were completely sur- 
rounded by their savage enemies. Chained or tied 
together, Polydore being fastened to a half-grown 
boy about his own size, they were forced to march 
for many days until they reached the sea-shore. 
Meantime, they had been joined by several other 
bands of captives, nearly all of whom had been 
obtained in the same way. 

Two ships, lying just off the coast, explained 
the cause of the sudden fury that seemed to have 
seized the people in that part of Africa ; and Poly- 
dore was quite relieved when he saw them, for he 
had been dreading sharing the fate of the many pris- 
oners whom he had seen killed for various purposes. 

Of the horrors of the barracoon, where they were 
pent up together before they embarked on board 
the ships, or of the still greater horrors of the 

middle passage," where, closely packed, and al- 
lowed ''less room than a man has in his coffin," 
they suffered from hunger, thirst, and every misery 
that the most ingenious tormentor could devise, 
nothing need be said, though Polydore dwelt long 
upon them. Then he told how he was landed and 
sold at Cuba. His first purchaser had given a 
pound of tobacco for him. His second purchaser 



in Cuba gave twenty dollars, for he was so ema- 
ciated that it seemed impossible he should live. 
After a few months, he was carried to Texas and 
resold for quite a high price. From there he was 
smuggled into Louisiana, but, falling into bad 
hands, Mr. Peyton, the father of the present owner 
of Cedar Hill, had bought him from motives of 
compassion ; and, three years after leaving Africa, 
he found himself on a plantation in Virginia, and 
'^better off," said he, ''dan I ever was befo'; I is 
taught 'bout Jesus and my heavenly Mas'r. I no 
fear de debbil in de bus', no fear de slave-catchers, 
no fear any body, but has every ting safe and com- 
fable. And now, Keziah, I tink I be mighty fool 
to leave all dese tings. But if you go, I go too. 
You's an unprotected single womin, and I can't see 
you go alone." 

''Hush! shut up with yer single womin. I's 
Avorth two of you any day," replied Keziah. 

" Dese arms is wort' somethin', Keziah," said 
Polydore, stretching out limbs that might have 
rivaled Samson's. 

" De arms is good enough," replied Keziah, scorn- 
fully, yet not without a certain degree of admira- 
tion in her look, which strength, either of body or 
mind, always extorted from her, "but what's de 
good of strong arms when de heart is a coward's?" 

"You are just de hardest womin I ever came 



across," said the distressed Polydore ; ''didn't I tell 
you I was a goin', and what mo' could I say ?" 

''But you didn't say it with your whole heart, 
and de Lord don't 'cept no unwillin' pfferin's." 

" I wasn't tinking of making an offerin' of my- 
self," said Polydore, resentfully ; " only to you, 
Keziah," he added, in a softer tone. 

Keziah pretended to pass over in silent disdain 
the last few words, but they did not fail to make 
an impression on her long-besieged heart. Its de- 
fenses were fast giving way ; yet, showing no out- 
w^ard sign of the weakness within, she replied, 

" Dat won't do at all, Polydore ; we must make 
up our minds to be missionaries, and do de Lord's 
work as well as our own. We has been greatly 
blessed 'bove our poor heathen brethren, in havin' 
learned here how to fight de good fight, and gain 
de heavenly crown. And when we go 'mong de 
savages, and dey come to visit us, as dey will mos' 
likely" — Polydore groaned — "we can tell dem 
'bout de blessed Savior, and teach 'em to lay down 
dem wicked habits you's jus' been tellin' us of." 
Another groan. — '"Fact," continued Keziah, warm- 
ing up, " I wouldn't be a bit afraid to go and live 
right among 'em, if I tought I could do dem any 
good dat way." 

"Don't talk so, Keziah, do, don't," said Polydore, 
beseechingly, "you don't know what dey is." 



*• Ain't dey our traders and sisters?'* asked Ke- 

If dey is broders, I never want to see no broders 
while I live.** said Polydore ; "but don*t talk any 
more 'bout it. please. Fs willin* to go. Fs willin' 
to be a offerin*, or any ting else to please you, for I 
has hung about you too long to change now ; but I 
doesn't feel much heart about it. and dat is de 

Keziah's warm approbation revived Junius's zeal, 
and Xathan caught a little of her ardor, and agreed 
that, if he could look upon the matter in the same 
light that she did, he would be ready to embark in 
the first ship. 

The idea of living in a land where they would 
enjoy the blessings of equality as well as freedom, 
once suggested to them, it soon became their guid- 
ing thought and desire. The higher the class of 
mind to which the proposal was made, the more 
eagerly was it received and the more warmly cher- 
ished. Keziah was a lover of freedom from instinct 
and nature rather than reflection. Wbile a slave, 
as long as she was treated like one, she had re- 
belled almost to death ; when brought under kinder 
influences, and while yielding, from gratitude and 
affection, the most entire devotion, the Peytons could 
not help perceiving that the more she was allowed to 
consider the service one of free will, the more heartily 


was it performed. She had received with delight 
the gift of personal liberty ; and now the prospect 
of a home, where the overshadowing influence of the 
white man would not be felt, destroying every hope 
of self-elevation, and almost paralyzing the wish, 
was welcomed as a gift from Heaven. 

Nathan had a slower, calmer mind, and was more 
inclined to consider the difficulties and objections, 

the lions in the way," than Keziah. For that 
reason, perhaps, his judgment was more to be relied 
on when he had once come to a decision. But Ke- 
ziah's warmth and firmness of purpose was of great 
use in awakening his naturally sluggish feelings, 
and in preventing his interest from flagging in any 
subject that occupied them both. 

Emigration to Africa was their topic of conversa- 
tion whenever they met, which was at least once 
a day. Polydore listened in a meek but troubled 
silence, which ought to have touched their hearts, 
but was totally without effect. Sometimes he 
groaned and shook his head ; occasionally he broke 
forth into an " I's Avillin' !" but that came seldomer. 
However .^ound asleep he might be, he woke up at 
the word Africa, as if it were a charm, and his eyes 
would grow rounder and rounder, and his thoughts 
more and more confused, as the idea of all the great 
things they intended to do in that land of terror 
was held up before him. 



Mr. Peyton sent Junius to Richmond to transact 
a little business for him, and there he met Lott 
Gary, whose history should be related, not only for 
its own intrinsic merit, but to show what the Af- 
rican is capable of becoming even now, when weigh- 
ed down by so many and so great disadvantages. If 
he succeeded in growing to such a perfect stature in 
mind and heart, what may not be expected from 
those who are allowed to develop themselves under 
more favorable auspices. 

He was born a slave near Richmond, Virginia, in 
1780. His parents endeavored to train up Lott, 
their only child, in the fear of Grod ; but early hired 
out as a common laborer in Richmond, he was 
thrown into companionship with profane and intem- 
perate persons, who led him into vicious habits. 
While in the midst of his irreligious course, his at- 
tention was suddenly arrested by the powerful ap- 
peals of a Baptist exhorter. Overwhelmed by a 
sense of his sinfulness, he resolved to devote himself 
henceforth to the service of God, and in 1807 he 
joined the Baptist Church. 

Soon after his conversion, hearing a sermon which 
related to our Savior's interview with Nicodemus, 
a strong desire to be able to read the passage for 
himself was awakened in his mind. AVith no regu- 
lar instruction and but little assistance, he soon ac- 
complished this, and succeeded also in learning how 
to write. 


His next wish was to become a freeman. He 
was employed at that time in a large tobacco 
warehouse, where, by his usefulness and honesty, 
he had acquired the confidence of the merchants, 
who frequently rewarded him for his fidelity by 
giving him small sums of money. In 1813, he 
found himself the possessor of eight hundred and 
fifty dollars, with w^hich he ransomed himself and 
his two children, his wife having died a little while 

He was afterward employed in the same ware- 
house at a salary of eight hundred dollars a year. 
Of the real value of his services there, it has been 
remarked no one but a dealer in tobacco can form 
an idea. Notwithstandino^ the hundreds of hoo^s- 
heads that were committed to his charge, he could 
produce any one the instant it w^as called for ; and 
the shipments were made with promptness and 
correctness, such as no person, white or black, has 
equaled in the same situation. While employed in 
the warehouse, he devoted his leisure time to read- 
ing and self-improvement. 

He early began to feel a special interest in 
African missions, and contributed probably more 
than any other person in giving origin and charac- 
ter to the African Missionary Society, established 
in Richmond in 1815, and which, for many years, 
appropriated annually to the cause of Christianity 



in Africa from one hundred to one hundred and 
fifty dollars. His benevolence was practical ; when- 
ever and wherever good objects were to be effected, 
he was ready to lend his aid. 

For several years he preached on almost every 
Sunday among the colored people on the plantations 
around Richmond. Some one has remarked about 
him that, in preaching, notwithstanding his gram- 
matical inaccuracies, he was often truly eloquent. 
He had derived almost nothing from the schools, 
and his manner was, of course, unpolished ; but 
his ideas would sometimes burst upon you in their 
native solemnity, and awaken deeper feelings than 
the more polished but less original and inartificial 

During the latter part of his residence in Rich- 
mond, in addition to his weekly duties, he sustained 
the office of pastor of a Baptist church of colored 
persons in Richmond, embracing nearly eight hund- 
red members, and received from it a liberal sup- 
port, and enjoyed its confidence and affection. 

Yet so clearly did he see the glorious prospect 
opened to his race by the colonization movement, 
that, from the earliest commencement, he watched 
it with anxious and hopeful earnestness, and de- 
clared his willingness to lay down all his present 
advantages to become a pioneer, and, if necessary, 
a martyr in the cause. When a clergyman of his 


own faith asked him how he could determine to 
leave a station of so much comfort and usefulness, 
to encounter the dangers of an African climate, 
and hazard every thing to plant a colony on a dis- 
tant heathen shore, he replied, " I am an African ; 
and in this country, however meritorious my con- 
duct and respectable my character, I can not receive 
the credit due to either. I wish to go to a country 
where I shall be estimated by my merits, not by 
my complexion ; and I feel bound to labor for my 
suffering race." 

A heart thus burning with love toward its breth- 
ren, and a desire to do them good, must affect with 
somewhat of the same zeal all kindred hearts that 
come within the sphere of its influence. Junius 
returned from his journey to Richmond fully de- 
cided to devote the rest of his life to carrying the 
Grospel of Christ to the dark regions of Africa. He 
found Keziah also more and more bent on leaving 
a country where the sense of her degraded position 
had always been a heavy burden to her. 

But Nathan still shrank from the untried experi- 
ment, and it was at last decided that Keziah, Poly- 
dore, and Junius should go out among the 
emigrants, and if their report were favorable, Na- 
than, with his wife and the rest of his family, should 

The departure of kindred could hardly have caused 


greater commotion at Cedar Hill than did the an- 
nouncement of the determination of the three, who 
had made up their minds to sail in the first ship 
for Africa. Philip Fairfax was especially busy, 
and by his care Polydore's chest was crowded with 
every thing that the wildest imagination could sug- 
gest as possibly useful or necessary in their probable 
situation. It was well that some one had took it 
upon himself to attend to Poly d ore, otherwise he 
would have fared but badly, as he never seemed to 
think it even possible that he might need any thing, 
but sat, when not attending to some errand for 
Keziah, with his head resting on his hands and 
his elbows on his knees, absorbed in melancholy 
thought, or lost in slumber. 

On their way to New York, from which city they 
were to embark, they spent the Sabbath in Rich- 
mond, and heard Lott Gary preach his farewell ser- 
mon in the First Baptist Meeting-house in Rich- 
mond. It was a striking one, and when he con- 
cluded by saying, I am about to leave yon, and 
expect to see your faces no more ; I long to preach 
to the poor Africans the way of life and salvation ; 
I don't know what may befall me, whether I may 
find a grave in the ocean, or among the savage men, 
or more savage wild beasts on the coast of Africa ; 
nor am I anxious what may become of me : I feel 
it my duty to go ; and I very much fear that many 


of those who preach the Grospel in this country will 
blush when the Savior calls thern to give an account 
of their labors in his cause, and tells them, 'I com- 
manded you to go into all the world, and preach 
the Grospel to every creature the Savior may ask, 
' Where have you been ? what have you been do- 
ing? have you endeavored, to the utmost of your 
ability, to fulfill the commands I gave you, or have 
you sought your own gratification and your own 
ease, regardless of my commands V " many felt their 
hearts touched and moved by the solemn appeal. 

They left New York in January, 1820, and ar- 
rived safely, after a short delay at Sierra Leone, at 
Sherbro, an island on the western coast of Africa, 
which the agents sent out by the society — Samuel 
J. Mills and Ebenezer Burgess — had made arrange- 
ments for purchasing from the natives. 

The first week or two after the landing of " the 
pilgrims," for so might the greater part of them be 
considered, the change from shipboard to the palm 
groves and genial climate of their fatherland was 
very pleasant indeed. Polydore, to whom Keziah 
had held up almost daily, during the voyage. Lot's 
wife as a warning, an example to be shunned, fell 
back so readily into the habits of his childhood, that 
the danger now appeared to be that he would forget 
all that he had learned of civilization, and become 
once more an indolent, self-indulgent savage. 



All kinds of food — fo\vl<, goats, and fish — were 
brought in abundance by the curious natives, and 
could be obtained for a trifle. The most delicious 
fruits — oranges, lemons, pine-apples, guavas. and 
many others whose names Polydore did not remem- 
ber, though in taste and appearance they were per- 
fectly familiar to him — grew in great profusion 
around their new home. 

However, but a short time was given them for 
rest and enjoyment. The Island of Sherbro was 
low and unhealthy, and while Mr. Bacon, the gov- 
ernment agent, was eodeavoring to induce the kings 
of the neighboring country to make a formal sur- 
render of the land according to their promise to Mr. 
Mills, he was seized with a burning fever. Almost 
at the same time, twentv-five of the emisfrants were 
prostrated by the same disease ; and soon after, Mr. 
Bankson, the other agent, the physician, the lieu- 
tenant of the ship, and all the crew, were attacked 
by African fever in its most violent form. Mr. Ba- 
con struggled as long as he was able against his 
own illness, that he might aid the rest. He was 
particularly anxious to obtain for those under his 
care a healthier home. But all his exertions were, 
vain. 'The chiefs had become cold and suspicious, 
and the natives, who had at first crowded round 
them in amicable curiosity, had evidently become 
jealous and unfriendly. 


The colonists could not understand the reason of 
this change for some time. It arose in a great 
measure from the representations of the slave-trad- 
ers, who have been the chief, though often the se- 
cret enemy of that settlement, which, with a fore- 
sight quickened by their interest, they saw from 
the first, was to prove a greater obstacle to tl\eir 
nefarious trade than any number of ships or armed 
men. The kings along that part of the coast de- 
rived a great part of their income from the traffic 
in slaves. Of course, they could be easily infia- 
enced by the traders, not only to withhold all en- 
couragement from those who were to cut off their 
chief source of revenue, but to proceed to open op- 
position. But while the emigrants were in this 
state of utter weakness. He, who is pitiful and of 
tender mercy, withheld the hand of their enemy, 
that the blow might not fall till they had gathered 
strength to resist it. 

Mr. Bacon's exertions for obtaining a more salu- 
brious location were in vain. Death came upon 
him while ha was working in the field," and with 
him Mr. Bankson, Dr. Crozer, Lieutenant Towns- 
end, twenty emigrants, and all the boat's crew, 
sank beneath the malignancy of the climate, or 
rather, as experience has since proved, from the 
want of a knowledge of its peculiarities, and from 
no proper shelter or comforts haviug been prepared. 



Only sixty-six emigrants remained. Some of 
these mourned over their situation, thus abandoned, 
as they thought, to certain death, and were inclined 
to look back regretfully toward the land thev had 
left. These were the faint-hearted ones, among 
whom neither Lott Gary nor Keziah could be placed. 
They both remained firm and full of hope, and their 
example had no slight effect in encouraging the rest. 
Polydore was more easily disheartened. Some ex- 
cess in eating fruit had brought upon him a severe 
attack of fever a second time, and, although he re- 
covered, greatly to his own surprise, he could not 
be induced afterward to acknowledge that any thing 
but evil could spring from so hazardous a movement. 

All the leaders thus speedily taken away, the 
agency and the care of the colony was intrusted to 
the Rev. Daniel Coker, a colored clergyman of the 
Episcopal Church. Thrown thus into a situation 
of such responsibility, with the sick, the dying, and 
the dead around him, with the charge of the prop- 
erty and interests of the colonists, he found time 
not only to fulfill faithfully those duties, but also to 
attend to ''his Father's business," and he com- 
menced a course of instruction to the natives. In 
a letter written in this time of trouble and discour- 
agement, he said, 

'' We have met with trials ; we are but a hand- 
ful ; our provisions are running low ; we are in a 


strange and heathen land ; we have not heard from 
America, and know not whether more provisions or 
people will be sent out ; yet, thank the Lord, my 
confidence is strong in the veracity of his promises. 
Tell my brethren to come ; fear not — this land is 
good ; it only wants men to possess it. I have open- 
ed a little Sabbath-school for native children. 0, 
it would do your hearts good to see the little naked 
sons of Africa around me. Tell the colored people 
to come up to the help of the Lord. Let nothing 
discourage the society or the colored people." 

The hope and trust expressed in this simple yet 
resolute letter were not disappointed. No sooner 
was it known in America that there were vacant 
posts waiting to be filled in that country, then re- 
garded as lying under the shadow of death, than de- 
voted men oifered themselves as ready for the duty. 
Four of these were selected, and sent out as agents, 
one of whom was the brother of the Mr. Bacon who 
had already fallen a sacrifice. 

They were welcomed with great joy by the col- 
onists. Finding that Sherbro was so unsuitable a 
place for a settlement, they accepted the off*er, which 
the governor of Sierra Leone had kindly made them, 
of a home at Fourra Bay until they could provide a 
better one for themselves. The colonists were soon 
removed there ; and although this delay was a great 
disappointment to Keziah, and troubled her more 



than all the other trials that had befallen her since 
she had left Virginia, yet her active and practically 
useful mind prevented her from being contented to 
spend the time thus given to her in idle waiting. 
She busied herself in teaching any native children, 
who would attend to her, the various little arts of 
civilized life which they could most readily under- 
stand, and soon found herself surrounded by quite 
a number of pupils, who, although they came and 
went as they pleased, yet gave in a short time such 
evident tokens of improvement, that Keziah could 
not help thinking it was for some good purpose she 
had thus been forced to cease from active exertion 
on her own account. 

Junius went on missionary excursions into the 
country around, and sometimes, penetrating far into 
the interior, returned with wonderful accounts of 
the beauty and fertility of the country, and the bar- 
baric pomp and power of the chiefs. 

Meanwhile the agents were exploring the coast, 
seeking a better location. Lying about three hund- 
red miles southeast of Sierra Leone was a high 
point of land called Cape Mesurado. Its position 
made it healthy, and the good harbor near it ren- 
dered it desirable. Another consideration made it 
still more of an object to obtain possession of it for 
their own purposes. It belonged to King Peter, a 
vrarlike and powerful prince, who was deeply en- 


gaged in the slave-trade ; and on each side of the 
cape, above and below, were noted barracoons, or 
places where the native Africans were kept crowd- 
ed together, waiting the arrival of some slaver. To 
make a Christian settlement in the midst of these 
dark places of the earth would be one great step to- 
ward their destruction. 

But King Peter refused to receive the agents, and 
returned their presents. Seeing that there were no 
hopes of an interview, they prosecuted their search 
still farther, and had selected a place that they 
thought favorable, when two of them sank under 
the effects of exposure to the climate, still too un- 
familiar a one for them to judge what course they 
ought to pursue when first thrown into it. 

Mr. Bacon was obliged to return home, and again 
the colony was left without a leader. But they did 
not remain long in this condition. The vacant post 
was soon filled by Dr. Eli Ayres, of Philadelphia. 

We extract, with little alteration, from " The New 
Republic" (an excellent little history of Liberia), the 
following account of the purchase of Cape Mesurado : 
Soon after the arrival of Dr. Ayres at Sierra 
Leone, Captain Stockton, of the war-ship Alligator, 
came on the coast, bearing instructions from the 
American government to co-operate with the agents 
of the Colonization Society in securing a suitable 
territory for the settlement of the emigrants. Dr. 



Ayres accompanied Captain Stockton on an explor- 
ing agency along the coast. On the eleventh of 
December they came to anchor in Mesurado Bay. 

' That is the spot v^e ought to have,' said Cap- 
tain Stockton, pointing to the high bluff off Cape 
Mesurado, as they stood together on the quarter- 
deck ; ' that should be the site of our colony — no 
finer spot on all the coast.' 

' Then we must have it,' answered Dr. Ayres. 
The resolution was a bold one. England and France 
had been trying for it for one hundred years with- 
out success ; the interview with Andrus and Bacon, 
six months before, was positively refused, and even 
their gifts scornfully sent back by King Peter. 
Though well aware of the ill success of every pre- 
vious attempt at a negotiation, and the uncompro- 
mising hostility of the natives to any thing bearing 
the semblance of a white settlement, these resolute 
men did not mean to sail tamely or timidly by with- 
out making an effort, or at least inquiry ; and every 
new aspect of the coast only strengthened their de- 
sires to obtain possession of it. They determined to 
land. Some headmen met them on the shore, to 
whom they gave suitable presents ; and upon enter- 
ing into a friendly conversation, it was soon clear 
that a favorable impression had been made upon 
their minds. They expressed a desire to see King 
Peter. Messenger after messenger was sent to beg 


a palaver with his majesty ; but it was not until 
he had disappointed and deceived them again and 
again, that he consented to an interview, and then 
only on the condition that they should dare to meet 
him in his own capital, far into the interior. To 
accomplish this, they must leave the coast, wade 
through water and mud, cut through dismal jun- 
gles, and in an enemy's country, surrounded on all 
sides by savages, whose fiercest passions had been 
nursed by the slave-trade, and who cared not a straw 
for human life. They must go armed to the teeth, 
and even then expect at any moment robbery and 

" Could they dare visit King Peter at such haz- 
ards? Could they brave the lion in his den? Yes, 
they could dare any thing in the prosecution of a 
great and worthy enterprise. 

' We will go !' was the resolute answer. In or- 
der to convince the natives that their object was a 
peaceful one, they determined to go unarmed, with 
the exception of a small pair of pocket pistols, which 
Captain Stockton usually wore in his coat. Wild 
beasts, and savages armed with muskets, roamed 
through the forests ; but they reached the capital in 
safety, where groups of naked barbarians came out 
to meet them, gaping with wonder. Having been 
conducted to the Palaver Hall, which was spread 
with mats for their reception, a headman came for- 



ward and shook them by the hand, announcing the 
arrival of his majesty. When the king entered, he 
took no notice of the strangers, but went to the far- 
thest corner of the hut, where he sat down, with an 
angry frown upon his brow and a glance of defiance 
in his eye. 

^' On being introduced by one of the chiefs, he 
asked, in a surly tone, what they wanted, and what 
business they had in his dominions. The plan of 
the colonists was carefully and minutely explained, 
all about which he well knew, having been inform- 
ed of the object of Mr. Andrus's visit several months 
before, and more recently, through his headmen, 
of its contemplated renewal by Captain Stockton 
and Dr. Ayres. Meanwhile large bodies of the na- 
tives began to darken around them ; but every thing 
wore a peaceable aspect, until, on the entrance of a 
fresh band, an unusal excitement began to agitate 
the crowd. Affairs looked dark and threatening. 
Captain Stockton arose and took his seat near the 
king. Presently a mulatto rushed forward, and, 
doubling up his fist, charged Captain Stockton with 
capturing slave vessels. ' This is a man trying to 
ruin the slave-trade !' he cried, in a loud and angry 

" ' These are the people who. are quarreling at 
Sherbro !' shouted another. 

''A horrid war-yell broke from the multitude; 


every one sprang upon his feet scowling vengeance 
upon the agents. Captain Stockton, fully conscious 
of the extreme peril of their position, instantly arose, 
and drawing out one of his pistols, pointed it at the 
Ixead of the king, while, raising his other hand to 
heaven, he solemnly appealed to the G-od of heaven 
for protection in this fearful crisis. King Peter 
flinched before the calm courage of the white man, 
and the barbarians fell flat on their faces at the ap- 
parent danger of their chief The captain then 
withdrew his pistol ; their savage rage was hushed ; 
awed and subdued by his fearless energy, some 
crept away, while their chiefs began to listen with 
respect to the advances and proposals now made to 

^'Success crowned their efforts. After two or 
three palavers, the king consented to sell a tract of 
land to the colonists. A copy of the contract enter- 
ed into upon this occasion may not be uninteresting. 

Know all men, that this contract, made on the 
loth day of December, 1821, between King Peter, 
King Greorge, King Zoda, King Long Peter, their 
princes and headmen on the one part, and Captain 
Robert Stockton and Dr. Eli Ayres on the other, 
witnesseth : that whereas certain persons, citizens 
of the United States of America, are desirous of es- 
tablishing themselves on the western coast of Afri- 
ca, and have invested Captain Robert Stockton and 



Eli Ayres with full powers to treat with and pur- 
chase from us (here follows a description of the hind), 
we, being fully convinced of the pacific and just 
views of said citizens, and being desirous to recip- 
rocate their friendship, do hereby, in consideration 
of so much paid in hand — namely : 6 muskets, 1 box 
of beads, 2 hogsheads of tobacco, 1 cask of gunpow- 
der, 6 bars of iron, 10 iron pots, 1 dozen knives and 
forks, 1 dozen spoons, 6 pieces of blue baft, 4 hats, 
3 coats, 3 pairs of shoes, 1 box pipes, 1 keg nails, 3 
looking-glasses, 3 pieces of kerchiefs, 3 pieces of cal- 
ico, 3 canes, 4 umbrellas, 1 box soap, 1 barrel rum; 
and to be paid the following : 6 bars of iron, 1 box 
beads, 50 knives, 20 looking-glasses, 10 iron pots, 
12 guns, 3 barrels of gunpowder, 1 dozen plates, 
1 dozen knives and forks, 20 hats, 5 casks of beef, 
5 barrels of pork, 10 barrels of biscuit, 12 decanters, 
12 glass tumblers, and 50 shoes — forever cede and 
relinquish the above -described lands to Robert 
Stockton and Eli Ayres, to have and to hold said 
premises for the use of said citizens of America. 

King Peter, X his mark. 

King George, ^ his mark. 

Kinsf Zoda. X his mark. 

King Long Peter, X his mark. 

King Governor, X his mark. 

King Jimmy, X his mark. 

Capt. Robert Stockton. 
Eli Ayres, M.D." 


Having now, by the courage and energy of these 
two commissioners, obtained one of the finest and 
healthiest parts of the coast for their own, possessing 
a good harbor and a fertile soil, the emigrants re- 
moved from Fourra Bay to it as soon as possible. 
Keziah's heart was filled with delight when she first 
landed at her new home ; and to all the colonists, the 
prospect of a safe and pleasant abiding-place, after a 
season of so much uncertainty and long delay, was 
delightful. It was with feelings of hope and exul- 
tation, which time has already proved to have been 
true presentiments, that on the twenty-fifth of April, 
1822, the American flag was hoisted on Cape Mes- 

Some time afterward the place received the name 
of Liberia, as indicating its true character, the 
home of the free." Like England, Liberia can 
boast that ^^no slave can breathe its air." 





Here the free spirit of mankind at length 

Throws its last fetters off ; and who shall place 

A limit to the giant's unchained strength, 
Or curb his swiftness in the forward racel 


Cape Mesurado is a bold promontory, rising at its 
highest point two hundred and fifty feet above the 
level of the sea. At the time when the emigrants 
landed upon it, it was covered with lofty forest trees 
and thick undergrowth. 

Selecting a hill near the Mesurado River, and 
about two miles from the coast, they began reso- 
lutely clearing places here and there, where they 
might erect temporary cabins until they obtained 
leisure and means to build dwellings that would 
better deserve the name of houses. Their little 
clearing was afterward named Monrovia, in honor 
of James Monroe, then President of the United 
States ; and this collection of huts, formed in trem- 
bling haste by the little band of defenseless colonists, 


is now a flourishing town, the metropolis of the 
African republic, with streets regularly laid out 
and named, with a State House, a prison, and three 
churches, all substantial stone buildings, with 
schools, dwelling-houses, stores, and warehouses, 
many of which are built of stone or brick. 

But not without toil, privation, and danger has 
this state of things been achieved ; and though many 
of those who bore the brunt of the battle are now 
reaping the fruit of their victory, and they who 
went forth weeping bearing precious seed," have 
returned with rejoicing, bringing their sheaves with 
them, yet others have been called to receive their 
reward in another world. 

April, the month when the settlers commenced 
their work, is generally called, in that part of Africa, 
the tornado month, from the violent gusts of wind 
and rain that occur during it ; and in May the rainy 
season often commences, continuing for six months, 
with an interruption of a few weeks in July and 
August. Though at first this season was dreaded 
as the most unhealthy one, it was found by long 
experience to be less trying to a new-comer than 
the debilitating heat of the dries," as the other 
months are generally called. 

But to preserve health, shelter from the rain is 
imperatively demanded, and therefore the colonists 
labored with little rest until they had erected thirty 



huts. For the first two or three months after their 
arrival at Cape Mesurado, the little band were left 
to their own resources, one of their number, Elijah 
Johnson, being appointed to take charge of their 
temporal interests ; while Lott Gary, who was every 
thing by turns as necessity demanded — carpenter, 
wood-cutter, soldier, a successful physician, and a 
devoted missionary — officiated as their pastor. 

Providentially, while thus defenseless, the natives 
were withheld from harmins:, or even threaten insr 
them. It was not until after the arrival of the new 
agent, Mr. Ashmun, who well deserves the name 
he earned, by his untiring exertions, of the found- 
er of Liberia,'' that the savages around them began 
to show symptoms of hostility. 

Dissatisfied with the sale of that valuable tract 
of land to a people opposed to the trade that was 
their chief source of income, the natives determined 
to destroy them utterly — to leave no vestige on that 
blood-stained, tear- washed coast of the little band 
of Christians who had brought with them the law 
of love, against whose silent eloquence their selfish 
hearts rose in fiendish hatred. 

Mr. Ashmun landed, with his young wife and sev- 
eral emigrants, in xlugust. He was then but twen- 
ty-eight. He had been a student all his life, and 
came out to Africa to preach the Gospel of peace 
and good- will. But hardly had he arrived, before 


he was called upon to lay aside all his previous hab- 
its, and become a soldier, an engineer, and a com- 

Of the one hundred and thirty emigrants who 
then composed the village of Monrovia, only thirty- 
five could bear arms, and many of these knew noth- 
ing about their management. He spent his days 
in training this undisciplined company; in direct- 
ing the building of a stockade around the settle- 
ment ; in placing in the best position the six cannon, 
almost their only reliable means of defense, human- 
ly speaking ; and in encouraging and strengthening 
those under his care by his example and prayers. 
He had the thickets around Monrovia cleared away, 
that they might afford the enemy no shelter ; ap- 
pointed a night-watch ; and his discerning eye and 
cool judgment foresaw and provided against every 

Yet during this time his wife died, and often his 
whole nights were passed in the delirium of fever. 
But when the morning came, laying aside his sor- 
row and forgetting his weakness, he would wrap 
himself in his cloak, and go forth to the work that 
so imperatively demarided his care. 

The emigrants played their part manfully. Lott 
Gary, with his clear mind and undaunted resolu- 
tion, and Elijah Johnson, who had been a soldier in 
early life, and afterward distinguished himself by 



his bravery and skill in the combats that followed 
their early settlement in Liberia, were strong arms 
of support to the young missionary. 

Meanwhile the savages were gathering in num- 
bers around them, and they nightly lay down to 
sleep with the dread upon their hearts of awaking 
to the horror of a midnight attack. But this was 
spared them. The assault so long threatened came 
at last, but in the early morning. AYhile hourly 
expecting it, Mr. Ashmun assembled his little army, 
and addressed a few words of advice and encourage- 
ment to them. He ended by saying, 

" AYar is now inevitable. The safety of our 
property, our settlement, our families, our lives, 
depends, under God, upon your courage and firm- 
ness. Let every post and every individual be able 
to confide in the firm support of every other. Let 
every man act as if the whole defense depended 
upon his single arm. May no coward disgrace our 
ranks. The cause is God's and our country's, and 
we may rely upon the blessing of Almighty God to 
succeed our efforts. We are weak. He is strong. 
Trust in Him.'' 

Neither the confidence the leader placed in his 
soldiers, nor the faith he showed in God's protecting 
care, proved unwarranted. One Monday morning 
in November, the savages, who had been hovering 
like swarms of locusts for several days around the 


settlement, suddenly rushed upon a post left un- 
guarded for a few minutes. Their sudden onset, 
their numbers, and their horrid yells, struck a 
momentary panic into the hearts of the defenders, 
and they turned to flee. But Mr. Ashmun and 
Lott Gary met them, and, with unflinching cour- 
age, rallied and led them back to the attack. The 
cannons, instantly brought into action, did great 
execution. The savages were appalled at the num- 
ber of wounded and dead that fell around them, 
and when Elijah Johnson, with a few musketeers, 
attacked them on their flank, they were filled with 
consternation. With another yell they fled into 
the recesses of the forest, and left the settlers to 
count their losses and bury their dead. But so 
engrossed were they in preparing against a second 
attack, which they hourly dreaded, that it was not 
until the next day they had time to perform this 
last sad duty. 

Not more than seventeen men had been engaged 
in this defense, while the assailants might be counted 
by hundreds; yet in half an hour the settlers could 
look far around them, and see no enemy. Was not 
the hand of the Lord in this ? 

A few weeks' rest was given to them ; but early 
in December, that loveliest of months in Liberia, 
the natives gathered again, and, armed with mus- 
kets, again attacked the settlement on each side. 


The battfe raged for an hour and a half. Four 
times ^yere the enemy repulsed Avith great slaugh- 
ter, and four times they rallied to the attack. At 
last, seized with terror at the destruction the can- 
non made in their ranks, and at the courage of the 
little band who so resolutely defied them, they fled 
through the forest to their diflerent tribes, carrying 
with them such accounts of the bravery and strange 
superiority of the settlers, that it was long before 
they were again molested. On the contrary, the 
kings of the tribes around them, of the Veys, the 
Deys, the G-reboes, the Queahs, and many others, 
sought an alliance with those who had shown them- 
selves so strong in their own defense. 

Mr. Ashmun, in speaking of his little army, said 
that not the most veteran troops could have be- 
haved with more coolness, nor shown greater firm- 
ness than the settlers on this occasion;" and Elijah 
Johnson earned for himself the title of hero, which 
he still retains. 

AYhile still ignorant that their second contest was 
to be their last important one for many years, and 
not knowing: how soon or when another attack might 
be expected, they learned to their dismay that their 
ammunition was almost exhausted. They had been, 
of course, unable to till the land or raise the neces- 
sary provision, easy as it is to provide for the wants 
of the body in Africa, and their bread and meat. 


though sparingly consumed, would last but little 
longer, and, for want of surgical instruments, the 
wounded suffered exceedingly. 

Yet even in this time of distress their faith did 
not falter, and the confidence they retained through 
every thing that the course they had taken was the 
wisest for them, and would be proved to be so in the 
end, sustained them. 

There never has been an hour or a minute," 
said Lott Gary, with great emphasis, " no, not even 
when the balls were flying around my head, when 
I could wish myself back in America again." 

While in this urgent need, a false alarm during 
the night led them to fire one of their cannon. 
When they discovered their mistake, they bitterly 
regretted that they had thus wasted a part of their 
small store of ammunition. But they soqn found 
that they could hardly have used it to a better pur- 
pose. A British schooner was just rounding the 
cape as that cannon broke upon the stillness of the 
night. Thinking it a signal of distress, some of 
the crew were sent on shore early in the morning, 
and discovered this ''little band of brave men, con- 
tending for life amid privations, poverty, sickness, 
and death, surrounded by barbarous tribes thirst- 
ing for their blood." 

The officers of the vessel generously gave them 
all the assistance in their power, and Major Laing, 


the distinguished African traveler, who was on 
board, offered to use his influence to propitiate the 
neighboring chiefs. In this he was successful, the 
bravery of the colonists having already awed them, 
and the settlers were afterward left almost undis- 
turbed, with the exception of a short interval, when 
Mr. Ashmun's health obliged him to leave them. 

The best means of restoration for him appeared 
to be a sea voyage, and reluctantly availing him- 
self of an opportunity for that purpose, he left the 
colony in the charge of Elijah Johnson, to whom it 
had been once before intrusted. The natives took 
advantasre of Ashmun's absence to menace them 
with another attack, and ilr. Johnson applied to a 
British man-of-war, then in the harbor, for ammuni- 
tion. This was freely given, and the captain also 
offered his men to aid in the defense, if Mr. Johnson 
would grant to England a piece of land large enough 
to plant her flag-staff upon, as British troops could 
only be called upon to defend the flag and soil of 
their country. This Johnson refused. "We do not 
want,'' said he, any flag raised here that will cost 
us more trouble to pull down than to flog the na- 

He did not regret this refusal, for the natives 
were soon subdued ; and when Mr. Ashmun re- 
turned, he found all tranquil. 

And, now that peace smiled upon them, they had 



time to think of portioning out and cultivating the 
land. Keziah, with her usual discrimination, se- 
lected for herself and Polydore, for their interests 
were at last united, a fine tract of land, lying a 
little out of the village. A thatched cottage was 
soon built upon it, and both she and Polydore worked 
induskiously to clear the land and prepare it for 
planting. Like many of the other settlers, their 
first attempts were unsuccessful. Whatever they 
planted grew as if by magic, and with hardly any 
trouble on their part ; but just as they Were prom- 
ising themselves an abundant harvest, legions of 
ants, or troops of monkeys, porcupines, or other wild 
animals, would in one night lay waste whole acres. 

Most of the other colonists were disheartened. 
The unsettled life they had lately been leading ren- 
dered them less fitted for steady exertion ; and find- 
ing that, by trading with the natives, they could ob- 
tain what was necessary for their subsistence with 
much less labor, in the natural desire that all people 
share for present ease and self-indulgence, they forgot 
their real and permanent good. The more far-sighted 
of the emigrants urged in vain upon their compan- 
ions the advantages of agriculture. It was not for 
some years that they realized its importance, and 
only lately has their attention been turned resolutely 
to it. 

Keziah was one of the few who persevered in en- 



deavoring to cultivate the land, and every year it 
became easier. The little animals that had at first 
proved so destructive, disappeared as the forests 
were cleared away. Each failure, instead of dis- 
couraging her, was only a new lesson ; she learned 
from them what seasons were most adapted to cer- 
tain grains and vegetables, and what seeds were 
best suited to the soil. 

All the time she could spare from her own cares 
she devoted to teaching the native women and chil- 
dren, who frequently visited her. The indefatigable 
Lott Gary had, with the assistance of another colo- 
nist, already established a missionary school for na- 
tive children, thus carrying out one of the principal 
objects of the society. 

Keziah longed to do the same, but the charge of 
the farm engrossed her too much ; for, although Poly- 
dore took the labor upon himself, the direction fell 
to his wife, who would have been by no means will- 
ing to relinquish it. 

Becoming dissatisfied, after a short trial, with this 
desultory mode of teaching the natives only when 
they chose to attend to her, she determined to adopt 
two little native girls, that she might train them 
more effectually in her own way. When Keziah 
proposed this plan to the savages around her, it was 
eagerly embraced, and such a number of children 
were offered, that she found her difficulty lay in se- 
jecting and refusing, not in obtaining. 


Not long after this addition to her cares, Poiydore 
returned from the village, already become a place 
of some importance, with the news that a slave- 
ship had been taken, and that its cargo was about 
to be landed at Liberia. The settlers, he said, were 
asked to do all that was in their power for the 
wretched beings thus thrown upon their charity. 

Keziah's heart instantly responded to this appeal, 
and she offered to provide food and shelter for four 
if they were sent to her. Fortunately, the cargo 
was a small one, the ship having been captured be- 
fore it was fully loaded, and only two were intrusted 
to Keziah's kindness. 

More miserable objects had seldom been seen than 
were these when they first reached her hospitable 
door. Emaciated and trembling, they appeared 
hardly able to stand, much less to walk. Indeed, 
Poiydore had been obliged to carry one of them up 
the hill leading to the cottage, for he had fallen from 
weakness while attempting to ascend it. But be- 
fore the end of a month, Keziah was surprised to 
observe the great change that had taken place in 
them. In their tall, muscular forms they almost 
rivaled Poiydore. 

For several days this latter personage had seemed 
very much perplexed. His pipe, which was his 
great resource in trouble, was in almost constant 
use. He would sit for hours smoking and gazing 


into the face of the larger of the savages, without 
uttering a word. Keziah, meanwhile, was endeavor- 
ing to teach them English, in which she succeeded 
but indifferently ; but every word they addressed to 
each other in their own tongue affected Polydore 
strangely. At length, one day when he was left 
alone with them, he approached the one who seemed 
to interest him so deeply, and addressed a single 
word to him. The savage looked up astonished. 
Again Polydore repeated the word, as though he 
were asking some question. The savage nodded, 
and quietly replenishing his pipe, Polydore seated 
himself in the door of the cabin, looking steadfastly 
in the direction from which he might expect his 
wife. He knew that she was gone out on some 
business that would detain her several hours longer ; 
but even watching for her was such a relief to his 
mind, that he would have preferred to sit there all 
day to any active occupation. 

She came at last, just as the sun was shedding 
its last faint ray of light. Noticing the wistful 
glance he cast upon her, she stopped and asked 
him what he wanted. 

" Keziah, dat's my brother." 
What ?" 

Dat man yonder is my brother." 
How do you know ?" 
^' Pve 'spected it dis long time • since he fust 


began to talk. I know'd every word he said, but I 
couldn't remember the meanin' ; and a little while 
ago I called him by his name, not the name de 
other nigger calls him, but de name he used to go 
by when we was chillun, and he said yes." 

" Does he know who you are ?" 
I don't know ; I hain't said nothin' to him since." 

Keziah found, on entering her cottage, that the 
savage had relapsed into his usual state of apathy. 
It was some time before she could induce him even 
to try to understand the news she labored to impart 
to him. When he did fairly comprehend it, it seemed 
to produce but little effect upon him. But both 
Polydore and Keziah being unwearying in their 
endeavors to instruct him, they soon had the pleasure 
of being able to understand his broken English. 
From that time his improvement was more rapid. 
He consented to take the land usually allotted to 
every settler, and they helped him to build a cottage 
for himself near them. Whether Keziah's earnest 
exhortations, or the silent influence of Polydore's 
example had the most effect, can not be known now, 
but before three years had passed by they had the 
unspeakable delight of welcoming him as a mem- 
ber of Ihe same fold, and under the same shepherd 
with themselves. 

Is not this worth all we have endured since we 
came to Africa ?" asked Keziah. 



And Polydore answered yes with his whole heart. 

Meantime, Mr, Ashmun's health had become so 
seriously affected, that he was obliged to return to 
his native country. The day on which he took his 
departure was one of the saddest that has ever 
darkened over Liberia. Yet while all crowded 
around him, to take a mournful leave of one who 
had been their great support through so many trials, 
they hardly thought they were bidding him adieu 
forever in this world. He only lived to greet once 
more his country, and died at New Haven a few 
days after he landed. His last prayers were for 
Africa, for " the poor people among whom he had 

Mr. xVshmun had left the colony under the care 
of Lott Gary, who continued to manage it with the 
same liberal spirit as his predecessor. His main 
object was to elevate the moral and intellectual 
standard of the African. For this purpose he exerted 
himself to establish schools, and labored both as a 
pastor over his own church and a missionary to the 
heathen around him. He was also energetic and 
prudent in his management of the business affairs 
of the colony, and it had never been more prosperous 
than when it was under his charge. 

His horror of the slave-trade, and his resolute de- 
termination to oppose it whenever an opportunity 
offered, was the worthy cause of the death of this 



truly heroic man. A king of a neighboring tribe 
had obtained possession of a factory belonging to 
Liberia, and situated a few miles north of Monrovia, 
which he had given to a slave-trader. After at- 
tempting uselessly to obtain restitution by pacific 
means, Mr. Gary determined to compel the king to 
grant his just demand. While engaged in prepar- 
ing cartridges to be used for this purpose, one of 
the men overturned a candle, which, falling into 
some gunpowder, caused it to explode, and several 
persons were instantly killed. Lott Gary was one 
of the number. 

It would seem as though the loss of two persons 
of such importance to Liberia as Mr. Ashmun and 
Mr. Gary would have been almost irreparable. 
Yet, though they were mourned with exceeding 
sorrow, and each colonist felt as though some mem- 
ber of their family had been taken, able men came 
forward to supply their place, and the temporal in- 
terests of Liberia seemed unaffected by the change 
in the human instruments that controlled them. It 
went on increasing steadily, though slowly, in num- 
bers and in size. Every year added something to 
its importance, and saw it elevated a degree higher 
in the scale of nations. 

Though the ardor of some spirits, that were over- 
zealous at first, has been dampened by the slowness 
of its growth, yet, to its more discerning friends, 



this very circumstance has been a cause of gratula- 
tion. For, if the colored people had been poured 
into Africa as emigrants have swarmed to our coasts, 
received, as they would have been, among savages 
and heathen, themselves, many of them, not yet 
fixed in their opinions and habits, there would have 
been great danger that they would have reverted 
to the customs of their fathers, and thus lost all the 
benefit of their early training. Now this danger is 
past. A Christian nation calls for its wandering 
children to come under its protecting care, and the 
entreaty can hardly be too readily obeyed. 

The light in which the settlers themselves re- 
garded their enterprise can not be better shown than 
by a few extracts from an address they drew up at 
a meeting of the citizens of Monrovia, in 1827, five 
years after they first landed on the cape. This 
was sent to America, to correct some false impres- 
sions that were prevalent there with respect to them. 
They say. 

The first thing which caused our voluntary re- 
moval to this country, and which we still regard 
with the deepest concern, is liberty — liberty in the 
sober, simple, but complete sense of the word ; that 
liberty of speech, action, and conscience, which dis- 
tinguishes the free, enfranchised citizens of a free 
state, and that liberty which was denied to us in 
America ; and now we truly declare to you that 


our hopes and expectations in this respect have been 

Forming a community of our own, in the land 
of our forefathers, having the commerce, soil, and 
resources of the country at our disposal, we know 
nothing of that debasing inferiority with which our 
very color stamped us in xlmerica. There is noth- 
ing here to create the feeling on our part — nothing 
to cherish the feelings of superiority in the minds 
of foreigners who visit us. It is this moral eman- 
cipation, this liberation of the mind from worse 
than iron fetters, that repays us ten thousand times 
over for all that it has cost us, and makes us grate- 
ful to G-od and our American patrons for the happy 
change which has taken place in our situation. 

The true character of the African climate is 
not well understood in other countries. Its inhabit- 
ants are as robust, as healthy, as long-lived, to say 
the least, as those in any other country. Nothing 
like an epidemic has ever appeared in this colony ; 
nor can we learn from the natives that a sweeping 
sickness has ever yet visited this part of the Conti- 
nent. But the change from a temperate to a trop- 
ical climate is a great one — too great not to affect 
the health more or less, and, in cases of old people 
and very young children, often causes death. In 
the early years of the colony, want of good houses, 
the great fatigues and dangers of the settlers, their 



irregular mode of living, and the hard^sliips and dis- 
couragements they met with, greatly helped the 
other causes of sickness, and were attended with 
great mortality. But we look back to those times 
as to a season of trial, long past and nearly forgotten. 

" People now arriving have comfortable houses to 
receive them ; will enjoy the regular attendance of 
a physician ; will be surrounded and attended by a 
healthy, happy people, who have borne the effects 
of the climate, who will encourage and fortify them 
against that despondency, which alone has carried 
off several in the first years of the colony. A more 
fertile soil and productive country, so far as it is 
cultivated, there is not, we believe, on the face of 
the earth. Its hills and plains are covered with a 
verdure which never fades. 

Cattle, swine, fowls, ducks, goats, and sheep 
thrive without feeding, and require no other care 
than to keep them from straying. Cotton, coffee, 
indigo, and sugar may be cultivated at pleasure, to 
any extent. The same may be said of rice, Indian 
corn, millet, and fruits, and vegetables too numer- 
ous to be mentioned. 

Our trade is already valuable, and fast increas- 
ing. It is carried on in the productions of the coun- 
try — consisting of rice, palm oil, ivory, tortoise-shell, 
dye-woods, gold, hides, wax — and brings us, in re- 
turn, the products and manufactures of the four 


quarters of the world. Seldom, indeed, is our har- 
bor free from European and American shipping. 

" Not a child or youth but is provided with an 
appropriate school. We have a large public libra- 
ry, court-house, meeting-houses, school-houses, and 

" Our houses are built of the same materials, and 
furnished in the same style, as in the towns of Amer- 
ica. We have an abundance of good building-stone, 
shells for lime, and clay for brick. 

" The cheerful abodes of civilization and happi- 
ness which are scattered over this verdant mount- 
ain ; the flourishing settlements which are spread- 
ing around it ; the sounds of Christian instruction 
and scenes of Christian worship which are heard 
and seen in this scene of pagan darkness ; a thou- 
sand contented freemen united in founding a new 
Christian empire, happy themselves, and the instru- 
ments of happiness to others — conclusively testifies 
to the wisdom and goodness of the plan of coloniza- 

This was the grateful and confident language of 
the colonists, while yet in the infancy of their ex- 
istence, w^hile savages were lurking around their 
outskirts, ready to take advantage of any weak or 
unguarded point, and while they were still obliged 
to look up to and lean upon the Colonization Socie- 
ty as their protector and guide. 




When, twenty years after, they stood up in the 
self-reliance of vigorous youth, and with the consent 
of their early guardian, declared themselves an in- 
dependent nation, how many more mercies had they 
to acknowledge ? 





He that bears himself like a gentleman, is worth to have been 
born a gentleman. — Chapman. 

After the first few years of trial, the accounts from 
Liberia were so encouraging, that Nathan yielded 
to the earnest entreaties of Junius, and emigrated 
to Africa with his family. At Mr. Peyton's request, 
Junius continued to write to him frequently, and 
keep him informed of all that happened of interest 
in the community, and more especially in the two 
households that had once been members of Mr. Pey- 
ton's family. Hardly a letter came without bring- 
ing some confirmation of the increasing stability 
and prosperity of the colonists. Every step they 
took was a step upward and onward. He became 
convinced that the great problem which had occu- 
pied so much of his thoughts was at last solved, 
and that in Africa the African might be allowed to 
grow to his full stature — to become a man. 

When, in 1847, Liberia proclaimed itself a free 
and independent nation, no one welcomed it more 



warmly into its new rank as a republic than did 
Mr. Peyton. Not long after this important event, 
he passed a few weeks in Philadelphia. He had 
heard nothing of Ben or Clara for two or three years, 
and had supposed them prosperously employed all 
that time. 

He was troubled at the condition in which he 
found them, though it was so superior to the one 
from which Mr. Lyndsay had rescued them. Wish- 
ing to excite in them a desire to share the priv- 
ileges which Nathan was enjoying, he sent them 
the letters he had received from Junius, most of 
which were filled with accounts of the happiness 
and comfort in which his father's family were living. 

He succeeded so far as to aw^aken an interest in 
them as to all the concerns of Liberia, but he could 
not arouse in Ben enough energy to induce him to 
leave even the poor home which was all he could 
hope to call his own in America. 

The influence of iVmericus was a s^reat obstacle 
to Mr. Peyton's wishes. He had returned from 
France quite a finished gentleman in manners and 
appearance, and with his ideas of his own conse- 
quence greatly exalted, and he scouted at the 
thought of leaving ^'the comforts of civilized life," 
to use his own words, to live in cabins and fight 
with savages. The United States was his native 
land; he had as much right to all the advantages 


he could derive from living in it as any other of its 
citizens ; and he was not going basely to give up 
his rights, but rather to nail his flag to the mast 
and demand them. There was a better time com- 
ing ; the hour would surely arrive, however long 
delayed it might be, when the distinctions of white 
and black would be unknown, and man w^ould be 
estimated by his own intrinsic worth." 

Speeches like these had a great effect on Ben. 
Clara, like most women, looking to the immediate 
and practical, rather than far into the dim future, 
asked what good that time w^ould do to them, if, 
as Americus observed, generations must pass away 
before that state of things could be looked for." 

While you are talking about it, and waiting 
for it here," said she, Nathan and Poly dor e are 
helping it forward in Africa ; for in Liberia wdiites 
and blacks do meet in terms of equality, or, rather, 
the colored people are the most important persons 
there, and that is the only Christian place I ever 
heard of w^here that is the case." 

Americus had heard of several others, but he 
seemed willing to make a trial of none of them. 

He was determined," he said, to live and die in 
America, and no colonizationist should force him to 
leave it." 

I am sure you are welcome to stay here if you 
like," said Clara ; the white folks are too glad to 



have somebody they can order about and make do 
their hard work, to compel us to leave ; but for my 
part, I would like to go where I can be as good as 
any body else. I know Nathan and Keziah very 
well. They have too much sense not to know 
whether it is better for them to be there than here, 
and they wouldn't speak so well of it if they did not 
like it." 

" Have you never heard of the fox that lost his 
tail in the trap, and tried to persuade his companions 
to cut off theirs too ?" asked Americus. 

Yes," said Clara ; " but I've knowed Nathan 
more than thirty years, and I never knowed him 
to tell a lie in all my life, and it isn't likely that he 
would begin now." 

Ben confirmed Clara's assertion, and Americus 
himself was too well aware of its truth to deny it. 

While this conversation was going on in Clara's 
room, Mr. Peyton was sitting with his wife in a 
private parlor of one of the principal hotels in Phil- 
adelphia, reading partly to himself, and occasionally 
aloud to her, such passages from different periodicals 
that were lying on the table around him as particu- 
larly struck him.. From one of the foreign reviews 
he read the following : 

" What a wonderful continent is this rounded, 
smooth-shored Africa, known from the earliest dawn 
of time, yet so unknown ; the granary of nations, 


yet sterile and fruitless as the sea ; swarming with 
life, yet dazzling the eyes with its vast tract of glit- 
tering sand ! North America, first seen but the 
other day, has been probed from end to end ; its 
Philips, Tecumsehs, and Montezumas have been 
bridled and broken by the white man ; but Africa 
has seen no Cortez, or even a De Soto or La Salle, 
wringing favor from fate." Some solitary Mungo 
Park, or faithful Lander, or persevering Burckhardt, 
alone has tried to read the secret of the mother of 
civilization — the gray-haired Africa. 

If we seek a land of romance and mystery, 
what quarter of the globe compares with that which 
holds the Pyramids ; the giant Theban temples, un- 
der one roof of which clusters a modern village ; the 
solemn, hewn mountain cliff of a Sphinx ; the ruins 
of Carthage ; the Nile, with its hidden sources ; the 
Niger, with its unknown outlet ; the heaven-bearing 
Atlas ; the dimly-seen Mountains of the Moon ! 

''There the slave rose, romantically, to be the 
ruler of millions ; there Moses, floating in his cradle, 
is saved by the king's daughter, and like the hero 
of some earlier chivalry, breaks the bonds of his 
people and founds a new and mighty nation. There 
was the home of Dido, of Hannibal, the scene of 
Soipio's triumphs, and Jugurtha's crimes ; there 
lived TertuUian, Athanasius, and Augustine : the 
last breath of Louis of France was drawn there. 



Africa is the home of the leviathan, the behe- 
moth, the unicorn, the giraffe, the antelope, the ele- 
phant, the lion, the buffalo. It is the home, too, of 
the mysterious negro races yet lying dormant in 
the germ, destined, perhaps, to rule this earth when 
our proud Anglo-Saxon blood is as corrupt as that 
of the descendants of Homer or Pericles. 

The past, present, and future of Africa are 
alike wrapt in mystery. Who can tell us of the 
childhood of dark-browed Egypt, square-shouldered 
and energetic? Carthage, the England of the old 
world's rulers, has not even a romancing Livy, still 
less an unw^earied Niebuhr, to explain her rise and 
untangle the mysteries of her constitution. Of all 
the vast interior, what do we know more than the 
Punic merchants, who, like us, desalt there, taking 
slaves, ivory, and gold ? 

''And what can we hope hereafter to see in those 
immense, unknown lands ? God has enabled the 
European to drive out the North American, and 
given a great continent the full development and 
trial of w^hatever permanent power the Caucasian 
race possesses ; but Africa he has preserved — for 
what ? For future contest ? For an imported for- 
eign civilization, to be entered through Liberia and 
the Cape Colonies ? France and Britain are watch- 
ing each other now along those burning sands, as 
they once watched by the icy rocks of Canada and 


Acadia : is it to end in the same subjection of the 
aboriginal owners to one or both of these ? Or does 
the dark race, in all its varieties, possess a capacity 
for understanding and living out the deep laws of 
the world's ruler, Christianity, as the offspring of 
the followers of Odin never did, and never can, un- 
derstand and act it ? 

If the old Egyptian Sesostris had paused to 
contemplate the illiterate wanderers of Greece, to 
whom Cadmus was just striving to make known 
the letters of Phoenicia, would not Plato and Aris- 
totle have seemed as impossible to him as the exist- 
ence in Africa of a higher Christianity than has yet 
been seen seems to us ? Would not the present 
position of the Teutonic race have appeared equally 
incredible to the founder of the Parthenon, the 
loungers in the gardens of the Academy ?" 

Here he was interrupted by the entrance of a lady 
who came to call upon his wife. She was a Mrs. 
Vaughan, who belonged to the Society of Friends, 
as was easy to see by the grave simplicity of her 
dress, which accorded so well v/ith the calm, un- 
worldly expression of her face, that the impression 
of its oddity was lost in its suitability. 

" I have called to see thee," said she, after the 
usual words of greeting had passed, to tell thee of 
a very interesting visit I have been making this 
morning. Thee knows that Joseph Roberts, the 



President of Liberia, is here on business connected 
with his adopted country. I heard a little while 
ago that his wife was with him, and I have been 
to see her. She is a pretty, intelligent young wom- 
an. I was very much pleased with her indeed. I 
knew that thee was interested in all that concerns 
that country, and as I had an opportunity to ask a 
great deal about it, I thought that thee might like 
to hear what she said." 

Is Mr. Johnson a white man asked Virginia. 

Oh no, my dear," replied Mr. Peyton ; ''he is 
the President of the Republic of Liberia, and no 
white person is allowed to hold any political office 
whatever there. He was once a slave in Virginia, 
but was emancipated and sent to Liberia when he 
was quite a lad. He has raised himself by his own 
exertions to the station he now occupies, after hav- 
ing filled with credit and honor the important posi- 
tion of general of the forces of Liberia, at a time 
when they were engaged in a serious contest with 
one of the most powerful of the neighboring tribes. 
The quarrel was occasioned by a demand for slaves, 
and this tribe, which had long carried on their com- 
merce with the Europeans almost exclusively by 
means of the slaves they obtained in their forays, 
attacked Millsberg and Hedington within a short 
time, in order to get possession of several of the na- 
tives who had taken refuge under the protection of 


Liberia. Do you not remember, my dear, the ac- 
count I read to you from one of the letters I re- 
ceived from Junius, of the attack on the latter place 
by three or four hundred savages, and of the brave 
defense the inhabitants made, though so taken by 
surprise. At last, Zion Harris, a citizen of Liberia, 
who emigrated from Tennessee, put the whole band 
to rout by a fortunate shot, which struck down their 
head man. They rallied, and by another shot he 
killed the second chief. This made them hesitate 
for a moment, and, taking advantage or the pause, 
Harris blew a large bugle. Supposing this to be 
the signal of a re-enforcement approaching, the sav- 
ages fled in all directions." 

Yes," replied Virginia, " I do remember it. It 
was on that occasion, I believe, that the barbarians 
brought a kettle to cook the missionary in." 

" They were sure of victory," said Mr. Peyton, 
" and were amazed at being defeated by such a 
handful. They thought the settlers had greegrees 
or charms to protect them. Fortunately, Buchanan 
was then Grovernor of Liberia, a man of great abil- 
ity and energy ; and he determined ' to settle the 
matter at once and forever,' as he said. Therefore 
he, with Greneral Roberts, the same man who is 
now President of Liberia, went with three hundred 
men twenty-five miles into the interior, to attack 
the tribe in their own fortress. He stained so com- 



plete a victory, that the settlers have not since been 
disturbed by the natives. . On the contrary, most 
of the kings around them, and some who live far 
in the interior, have sent to beg an alliance with 
the Liberians. I have been glad to see that one 
stipulation which has always been made before 
receiving them as allies is, that they should never 
be in any way engaged in the slave-trade." 

" Does it not seem a pity to thee," asked Mrs. 
Yaughan, '*that this bloodshed could not have been 
avoided — that the Liberians did not make a treaty 
with the natives, as Penn did with the Indians ?" 

Under the circumstances, that was impossible," 
replied ilr. Peyton. There were no slave-traders 
in Pennsylvania to excite the natives to war by 
tellins: them that their commerce w\is about to be 
destroyed by the unwelcome intruders. If the 
selfish passions of the Indians had been awakened 
by interested and designing men, there might have 
been a very different account to give of Penn's 

I would like to have seen it fairly tried," said 
Mrs. Vaughan. 

^ " It was tried more than ten years ago," replied Mr. 
Peyton. Quite a large number of emigrants went 
out under the auspices of the Pennsylvania Young 
Men's Colonization Society, and established them- 
selves at Bassa Cove, a beautiful and fertile spot on 


the St. John's River. They named the settlement 
Port Cresson, in honor of Mr. Elliott Cresson, who, 
you know, has been such an efficient and liberal 
patron of this enterprise. In fact, he was the 
founder of the society which sent out these emi- 
grants. They bound themselves before they left to 
refrain from ardent spirits and the arts of war, and 
to act as missionaries as far as they could. A letter I 
received from Liberia, a few months after they landed, 
was filled with accounts of the satisfaction of the 
settlers with their new home. One of the pleasantest 
and finest portions of Liberia had been selected 
for them, and they were improving it very fast. 
There were but two guns in the whole colony, but 
yet, trusting in the influence of their Christian prin- 
ciples, they did not feel the least alarm, although 
they were surrounded by savages. They were told 
several times of what might be the consequence of 
their defenseless situation ; but they paid no heed 
to the warnings, and therefore were taken com- 
pletely by surprise when one evening the savages 
rushed upon them from the thickets around, killed 
several, and compelled the rest to take refuge in 
the swamps and woods. Only two houses we^e 
left unmolested, and they belonged to the two set- 
tlers who had provided themselves with fire-arms." 

" Perhaps the colonists had not treated the natives 
kindly," suggested Mrs. Vaughan. 



*^ No ; the savages had no cause of complaint 
against the settlers, except that they had established 
themselves on land which had been bought for that 
purpose. It seems that there was a barracoon much 
used by the slave-traders quite near Port Cresson, 
and when they discovered that there was to be a 
Liberian settlement at the Cove, thev told the kins: 
of that part of the country that they could not think 
of buying slaves so near to the Americans, and should 
remove their factory immediately. This aroused 
the king's cupidity, and he promised to drive the 
emigrants away." 

^* Did he succeed V' asked Mrs. Yaughan. 
He did, at first ; and was so pleased with his 
good fortune, that he refused to listen to the mes- 
sengers the Liberians sent to him, and was prepar- 
ing for an attack on some of the other towns, when 
they marched a force against him, which com- 
pletely destroyed his towns and defenses, and re- 
turned without the loss of a single man. After 
that, finding that the Liberians were not the weak, 
defenseless people he thought them, he became 
their firm friend and ally, and entreated the settlers 
to return to Port Cresson, offering to repay them as 
far as he could for all the injury he had done them, 
and promising them any part of his country to set- 
tle in, if they would only give him * God's book and 
'Merica trade' again." 



" I hope the settlers accepted his offer," said 
Mrs. Vaughan. 

Yes, they did. But their new settlement was 
made about two miles above its former location, 
and is now called Bassa Cove. There are, however, 
a few houses still at Port Cresson, and I have no 
doubt but that it will be a flourishing town before 
many years. You see I am well informed coneJirn- 
ing Liberian affairs,'' continued Mr. Peyton, smil- 
ing. " There are few subjects in which I take so 
great an interest." 

A note was just then handed to him. After 
reading it, he turned to Mrs. Vaughan, saying, 

This is from your brother-in-law, Mr. Elias 
Vaughan. He says that several gentlemen are to 
spend the evening with him to meet Governor 
Roberts, and to learn from him more particularly 
the condition of Liberia. He is kind enough to ask 
me to join* them, and I shall be very glad to have 
an opportunity to talk with a responsible person 
from that country. We can learn a great deal more 
about the real state of affairs in that way than in 
any other." 

Mr. Peyton was detained by some visitors, and 
it was quite late in the evening before he reached 
Mr. Vaughan's. When he entered the room, the 
guests were conversing in little groups around it, 
while Mr. Roberts was standing by himself. As 



each person entered, the host had introduced them 
to the President of Liberia ; but after speaking a 
few words to him, so intolerable a feelinsf of awk- 
wardness and constraint stole over them at the 
unusual position in which they found themselves 
thus placed toward a colored man, that each, un- 
willing to make himself conspicuous by any long 
conversation with him, turned to those with whom 
they felt themselves on common ground. Mr. 
Yaughan did all that he could to prevent Mr. 
Roberts from perceiving any want of courtesy, 
but he was too much occupied by receiving his 
guests to allow him to devote much of his time to 

Mr. Peyton perceived the state of things at a 
glance, and could hardly repress a smile at the 
inconsistency between the principles and conduct 
of the assembly. There was not a gentleman 
present who did not profess to be an ardent friend 
to the colored race. Many of them supported 
vehemently the most liberal and ultra views with 
regard to their rights and capabilities. Yet here 
was one whose appearance and manners showed 
him to be a gentleman — a man of tried bravery, 
fidelity, and uprightness — intelligent, unassuming, 
and self-possessed — whom they had assembled for 
the purpose of meeting ; and each one of them was 
trying to appear unconscious of his presence. Yet 


uneasy glances were cast toward him from time to 
time, that showed that it was not the desire to be 
courteous that was wanting, but a decent respect 
for the opinions" of others. There is something in 
the human race that has a striking similarity to 
the docility of the sheep. Any lead taken with 
confidence will be sure to find followers. And the 
innate dignity, the lofty presence, and perfect good- 
breeding of Mr. Peyton well fitted him for a leader. 
People felt instinctively that, following him, they 
could not go wrong. 

He had come for the express purpose of meeting 
and talking with Mr. Roberts, and was soon engaged 
in an animated conversation with him. This could 
not fail to be an interesting one, both from the nature 
of the subject discussed, and from the clear, straight- 
forward, and satisfactory manner in which Mr. 
Roberts gave this account. Soon, one by one the 
guests drew near to listen, until at last Mr. Peyton 
and his companion found themselves the centre of 
an audience composed of all the persons in the 
room ; while Mr. Roberts, apparently as unconscious 
of the marked attention now paid him as of the 
neglect he had experienced a short time before, 
went on quietly but earnestly explaining the con- 
dition, the wishes, and the claims of Liberia. 

His inaugural address, when he entered upon his 
duties as the first president of the little republic, 


had impressed Mr. Peyton very favorably, and this 
interview elevated him still higher in his opinion. 
The clear good sense, the calm judgment, and the 
piety that appeared in all that he said, could not 
fail to inspire confidence in his listeners. 

Mr. Peyton returned to his wife with renewed 
zeal in favor of colonization. 

Besides the advantas^es it offers to the colored 
race," said he, and if Mr. Roberts is a fair speci- 
men of a Liberian, they are well worth all that has 
been done for it, its efficiency in suppressing the 
slave-trade ought alone to induce us to support it. 
We have spent millions of dollars in maintaining 
fleets there, yet they have done but little for us 
in comparison with Liberia. Nearly five hundred 
miles on the western coast are now entirely free 
from that curse ; and I hope and confidently expect 
that the time will come when from that little spot 
the laws and principles will go forth that will con- 
trol all Africa." 

''I wish we could induce Ben to go," said Mrs. 
Peyton. Americus is so well adapted to his posi- 
tion, that it would be a pity to persuade him to 
leave it ; but I think if Ben could only get his am- 
bition aroused once more, he would make a valua- 
ble citizen of that new country." 

I have spoken to Mr. Lyndsay about it," replied 
Mr. Peyton, and he has promised me that he will 



not lose sight of them, and will do all that he can to 
excite in Ben a desire to emigrate. I think he will 
succeed. I am sure if Ben had seen Mr. Roberts 
last night, he would have been convinced that he 
could become something more than ' a nigger,' as 
he calls himself." 

Mr. Peyton was disappointed that President Rob- 
erts was obliged to leave the United States without 
having obtained a formal recognition of the inde- 
pendence of his adopted country. Great Britain 
and France were more ready to welcome the nation 
that had thus sprung into existence than its own 
foster-mother ; and in both these countries the pres- 
ident was received with the honor befitting his rank. 

The following extracts from a letter from him will 
show, more forcibly than any account can do, how 
little effect the color has, when the position and 
character is such as to inspire respect. Mr. Lynd- 
say sent it to Americus, asking him how many gen- 
erations he supposed must pass away before a col- 
ored man from the United States would be so re- 
ceived by the governments of Europe. 

" London, October 25, 1852. 
^' My dear Sir, — A week or two since I wrote 
you, giving a somewhat detailed statement of my 
proceedings here and in Paris up to that time ; and 
now I have nothing very special to communicate, 



except that there is a decidedly increasing interest 
in England and France in favor of Liberia. By the 
government and people of both these countries I 
have been received in the most kind and flattering 
manner. I mentioned to you that, in consequence 
of the departure of the prince president for a tour 
in the south of France just about the time I reach- 
ed Paris, I had promised to make another visit in 
the course of a month. Accordingly, I returned on 
the 15th instant, to be present and witness the en-» 
try of the president on the 16th. 

" The minister for foreign affairs, M. Druyn de 
Lhuys, had heard of my arrival, and Sunday morn- 
ing, the 17th, I received an invitation from him 
and madame to dine with them the following day ; 
and, as you may suppose, I did not fail to avail my- 
self of the occasion to state fully my wishes, and to 
press upon his excellency the importance of dispatch 
in my case. The party at the table consisted of 
ten or a dozen, and all, except one, spoke English 
pretty well, and in compliment evidently to me, the 
conversation of the evening was carried on in my 
own language, notwithstanding the subject of dis- 
cussion. All appeared deeply interested in favor of 

" About nine o'clock the minister was sent for to 
meet the president at Saint Cloud. Before leaving, 
however, he said to me that he had spoken with the 


prince the morning before respecting Liberia, and 
had informed his highness that I was in Paris, 
and that my stay would be very short. The prince 
had therefore, notwithstanding the fatigue of his 
journey, consented to give me an audience the next 
day, Tuesday, at twelve o'clock. The next day at 
ten, I received a note from the minister, to say he 
would call for me at eleven to accompany me to 
Saint Cloud. He was punctual, and appeared in 
full court dress, and off we posted in his carriage. 
I, indeed, had a very pleasant interview, and found 
the president quite as well informed in regard to 
Liberian matters as I expected. He said he felt 
greatly interested in the effort that was being made 
in Liberia to test the capacity of the African race 
for self-government, and that he was well pleased 
at the progress that had been made ; and that Li- 
beria would be supported by the French government, 
not only to that view, but also as the best means 
for suppressing the slave-trade, and introducing civ- 
ilization and Christianity into Western Africa. In 
proof of his good wishes — upon my application for 
a few hundred stand of arms, uniforms, ^ &c., for 
our militia, and a small ten-gun brig — the prince 
readily consented to supply the uniforms, &c., and 
said he would speak with the minister of marine 
respecting the vessel. On returning to Paris, the 
minister for foreign affairs remarked to me, I might 



feel assured that all I asked for would be granted. 
The minister of marine was absent, to return in a 
few days, and as soon as he can be consulted, I shall 
know definitely through the French embassy here. 

" "With respect to my visit to London, I have con- 
tinued to receive every attention from her majesty's 
government. I have had frequent conversations 
with Lord Malmsbury and Mr. Addington ; and 
have had a long and tedious correspondence with 
them respecting Liberian affairs, and I think I have 
succeeded in convincing them thoroughly of the 
justice of the course pursued by the Liberian gov- 
ernment toward British merchants trading upon 
that coast, and that the complaints which have 
been made from time to time by said traders are 
without just cause. 

" Liberia stands to day upon a better footing than 
ever before in regard to her foreign relations. J 
have accomplished much, and shall not regret my 
visit to Europe. The government have kindly 
placed at my disposal a vessel to take me to Liberia, 
and I shall probably leave about the 1st proximo. 

" October 20th. I have just received a commu- 
nication from the foreign office, in which all my mat- 
ters have been arranged quite to my satisfaction, and 
upon the basis as stated above. Her majesty's gov- 
ernment recognize the sovereignty of Liberia over 
the points of coast which have been disputed by 


British traders, and thereby relieve us from future 
difficulty on that score, and the greatest source of 
annoyance we have had to contend against for years 

" Very truly your obedient servant, 

" J. J. Roberts." 

Some months before the date of this letter, Ben 
had decided, to Clara's great joy, on seeking the 
land where so many advantages awaited him. A 
letter he received from Junius, written at Mr. Pey- 
ton's request, and giving a plain statement of his 
father's situation, his own feelings and opinions 
about Liberia, and ending with a cordial invitation 
from both Nathan and Polydore, for Ben and Clara 
to make them a visit, and decide, after seeing the 
country, whether to return or remain, was the cir- 
cumstance that had the greatest effect in bringing 
about this decision. Americus exerted all his in- 
fluence against it ; but when he found that it was 
unavailing, he generously offered to supply them 
with the means of returning whenever they wished 
to come. 

''I care more just now," said Ben, " about get- 
ting the money to take me there. I have not ten 
dollars in the world." 

" The Colonization Society will send us at its 
own expense," said Clara. 



" But what shall we do after we arrive ? I sup- 
pose we must expect to go through the acclimating 
fever, and of course we can be earning nothing 

" The society will provide a house for us, and 
food, and medical attendance for the first six months, 
if we need help so long," replied Clara. 

" I would rather have something of my own to 
depend upon," said Ben ; " how long do you suppose 
it will take us to save two hundred dollars. I 
would not like to start with less." 

" If you had as good a place," said Clara, as 
you had when we first came here, we could do it 
without much trouble, but as it is, I don't see how 
we can lay by any thing." 

" Let us try," said Ben, " we may find it easier 
than it seems." 

Mr. Lyndsay knew the motive that had awak- 
ened Ben's long dormant energy, and encouraged 
him in his new course. After nearly a year had 
passed in constant efforts toward the attainment of 
his purpose, Ben confessed to Mr. Lyndsay that he 
was almost discouraged. Several things had been 
very much against him. One of his children had 
been ill, and his wife had been out of work part of 
the time. " He was afraid," he said, " he must be 
contented to live here all his life, making only 
enough to keep his family from suffering." 


When Mr. Peyton returned to Virginia," said 
Mr. Lyndsay, " he told me that whenever you 
wished to go to Liberia, I might obtain the needful 
funds from him. But, in accordance with his wish- 
es, I did not tell you of this until I had seen that 
you were so far in earnest in your intention that 
you were willing to practice exertion and self-denial 
in order to obtain it." 

This w^as cheering news to Ben, and he with his 
wife and children were soon prepared to take ad- 
vantage of Mr. Peyton's liberality. 

" Mr. Peyton has sent through me three hundred 
dollars said Mr. Lyndsay to them the day before 
they sailed, " sixty dollars is considered a fair aver- 
age by the society for the expenses of the voyage, 
and of the first six months in Liberia ; so, as there 
are but four of you, there is more than you really 
need ; but take good care of it, you will find it 

Ben promised to act with the greatest prudence, 
and, with hearts full of hope, the family embarked 
for their new home. 

I 2 





1 wave a torch that floods the lessening gloom 

With everlasting fire ! 
Crowned with my constellated stars, I stand 

Beside the foaming sea, 
And from the future, with a victor's hand, 

Claim empire for the Free ! 

J. Bayard Taylor. 

After a pleasant voyage of thirty-five days, Ben 
saw the high promontory of Cape Mesurado rising 
in bold relief against the clear sky. It was a bright, 
sunshiny day in July when the emigrants landed 
at the cove near the base of the cape. Polydore 
and Nathan were on the beach to greet them on 
their arrival, and make them feel less like strangers 
in a strange land, and they were struck with the 
improvement manifest in Polydore's language and 

The pretty town of Monrovia also excited their 
surprise and admiration. Its substantial, well-built 
houses, its churches, and its warehouses were su- 
perior to any thing that they had imagined. The 


streets were shaded with the singular and beautiful 
trees of the tropics, and by many of the houses were 
gardens filled with flowers and vegetables. 

Our farm was very near Monrovia," said Poly- 
dore ; but we found out that the land was better 
a little farther from the sea-shore, and so, when Na- 
than came, we moved to a place near Caldwell, on 
the St. John's River. There's some of the best land 
there that I've seen any wheres. It's 'bout nine 
mile from here ; but I have a wagon, with some lit- 
tle African ponies, that will soon take us there." 

''Are these houses well furnished ?" asked Clara. 

"I reckon they are," replied Polydore ; "some of 
them are most equal to ol' mast'r's house at home. 
Here's one of our newspapers," continued he, hand- 
ing " The Liberia Herald" to Ben; " we've another 
one besides that." 

" Is this written by colored men?" asked Ben. 

" Yes, po'try and all. Don't you 'member Colin 
Teage, that came over here the same time Keziah 
and I came ? His son, the Reverend Hilary Teage, 
is the editor." 

" Yes, I remember it," said Ben; "he freed him- 
self and his two children." 

On their ride to Caldwell, their road lay for a lit- 
tle while along Stockton Creek, the southern fork 
of the St. John's. They passed the little village of 
New Greorgia. 



" The people there seem to be paying a good deal 
of attention to their land," said Ben. 

" Yes," replied Nathan, most all the vegetables 
used in Monrovia are raised here. The persons 
about here are mostly native Africans, and have 
been slaves. If you could only have seen what poor, 
mis'able wretches they were when they first came, 
you would not have thought they would ever have 
had such comfortable homes." 

''Are they considered Liberians ?" asked Ben. 

'' To be sure they are — one of them was sent to 
the Legislature a few years ago." 

This is the St. Paul's," said Polydore, after a 

'' AVhat a beautiful river !" exclaimed Clara. " It 
is so wide and full of islands. What are all those 
strange-looking trees ?" 

That tree with the leaves growing out of the 
top is the palm. It is the most useful tree in the 
world, I think. I can't tell you what the natives 
don't do with it. They thatch their houses with its 
leaves, and make cloth and ropes out of its bark, 
and wine from its sap, and a great many other 
things, besides the oil from the nut, which is the 
most valuable part of it, and is one of their princi- 
pal articles of trade." 

" How do they make it?" asked Ben. 

'' The natives have a very rough way of manag- 


ing it. They dig a square pit in the earth, and fill 
it with the palm-nuts, pounded shell and all togeth- 
er ; then the women trample the oil out with their 
feet. When they think they have pressed it all out, 
they pour water into the pit, and skim off the oil as 
it rises with their hands. But in this way, of course, 
a great deal of oil is wasted ; yet it is wonderful 
how much they make. They sell it to the traders 
for about thirty -three cents a gallon. You know a 
great deal of fine soap is made with palm-oil, and 
so it is always in demand. We have presses to use ; 
and one of our settlers, Mr. Henning, of Bassa, has 
invented a machine for extracting the oil from the 
kernel. This is much finer than that which is made 
from the whole nut. It is as pure as water, and 
can be made quite hard. Many persons use it in- 
stead of lard or butter. The common oil makes 
very good candles, and can also be burned in lamps." 

" Does Mr. Henning make any money by his oil?" 

''It sells for one dollar a gallon, and he can make 
ten gallons a day. You can judge for yourself 
whether it is profitable or not. The palm is one of 
our most common trees, so that nuts can always be 
obtained. Do you see that weed growing through 
the woods ?" 

" Yes." 

'•Well," continued Nathan, "that is indigo. It 
is a great trouble to the farmers here. We have 



the hardest work to get rid of it. It grows every 
where, even in the streets. Once Keziah said she 
meant to make some use of it, to pay her for all the 
labor it had cost her, and she made some very nice 
indigo, that my wife dyed these stockings with ; but 
it was a good deal of trouble, and she has not tried 
to make any more. The natives make a fine blue 
with it, and at Monrovia they manufacture it a lit- 
tle. People say a fine living might be made out of 
it by those who are willing to take a little pains." 

" Does cotton grow here ?" asked Ben. 
Yes ; there are several kinds of native cotton. 
It grows much higher than ours, and is a tree rath- 
er than a plant. Junius, who has been traveling 
about a great deal in the interior, says that he has 
stood under a cotton-tree whose branches were so 
heavy with their bolls that they had to be support- 
ed by sticks. He says that the cotton was as good 
as any he ever saw. The natives manufacture it 
for themselves. We have never tried cultivating it 
enough to know whether it will be profitable to us 
or not. Keziah has one small tree on her place, and 
she gets cotton enough from that to knit all the 
stockings her family need during the year, and she 
has quite a large one." 

" There is one thing in its favor here," said Ben ; 
there are no frosts to ruin the crop." 

''Yes," replied Nathan, '' the plants will live and 


yield a good crop for six or seven years, with but lit- 
tle trouble besides what is necessary in picking it." 

"I thought this was the rainy season," said Cla- 
ra ; but the sun has been shining all day." 

This is what we call ' the middle dries.' It is 
the pleasantest time of the year, and one of the 
most healthy. I am glad you came during this sea- 
son. We shall not have much more rain now till 

''Is it never any warmer than it is now ?" asked 
Clara ; for the cool breeze that blew so refreshingly 
over her face was very unlike the scorching heat 
she had expected to find. 

Yes ; our warmest weather is in January and 
February. That seemed mighty strange to me 
when I first came over here, and I have hardly got 
used to it yet. In January we have a very dry 
spell, and if it were not for the sea-breeze, we should 
suffer from the heat. But yet our thermometer has 
never risen above ninety degrees, and it is often 
much warmer than that in Virginia." 

''I see a great many rice fields along here," said 
Ben ;. '' I suppose you have a plenty of that." 

'' Yes ; but the natives raise the most of it. They 
take very little trouble with it. They just scratch 
the ground and throw the seed in, some time in 
April generally, and by August the rice can be har- 
vested. The crops are very abundant, and, though 



the Africans will not work on their farms more than 
three or four months in the year, they raise much 
more than they need. IMany of these little dwell- 
ings and farms along this river belong to the na- 
tives ; and we find we can get our rice from them 
cheaper than if we sowed it ourselves. Some of the 
farmers are beginning to cultivate it a little/' 

It was night — one of those beautiful moonlight 
nights of the tropics when every thing seems bathed 
in a flood of silver light — before the travelers reach- 
ed Polydore's farm, where they were to remain un- 
til they had decided where they would make their 
future home. 

They had only time to observe that the house, a 
low building of one story, but covering quite a large 
space of ground, had a pleasant, well-shaded look 
of coolness and comfort, when they were surrounded 
by so eager a group of welcomers, that they had no 
opportunity to notice any thing farther. Sally and 
all her children had come over from Nathan's place, 
and Polydore's brother had joined them, with his 
family, evidently looking upon the new-comers as 
old acquaintances. Keziah's adopted children were 
also there. One of them was married, and settled 
on an adjoining place ; the other was still a member 
of Keziah's family. 

Ben and Clara were too much occupied in asking 
and answering questions of personal interest to gain 



many new ideas on the subject of Liberian affairs ; 
but the next morning Keziah took them over her 
farm, and showed them her arrangements with no 
little pride. Nathan had warned Ben beforehand 
not to think that every place in Liberia was as well 
attended to as Kezialrs. 

" They might be, easily," said he, ''for every set- 
tler has the same chance ; but some folks are lazy, 
and won't take the least trouble. They seem to 
think they oughtn't to be expected to do any thing 
but open their mouths, and the food will drop into 
them, ready cooked." 

" You know," said Keziah, " that every single 
man receives five acres of good land when he comes 
here. He can have a town lot, if he prefers it. If 
he is married, and has a family, more land is given 
to him ; but never more than ten acres. If he would 
like a larger farm, there is plenty of land to be 
bought for a dollar or two an acre. We only have 
ten acres, though, and find we can raise a great 
deal more than we want from them. Nathan has 
more. He has a little coffee plantation that he is 
very proud of." 

" What is this ?" asked Ben, 

" That is our sugar-mill. Polydore made it him- 
self. We make all our own sugar and molasses, 
and generally have some to sell, though we only 
plant one acre in sugar-cane. It grows very high. 



Some people who came from Louisiana say it is 
a great deal larger here than they ever saw it 

''Here are a few cotton trees," continued Keziah. 
I suppose, one of these days, we shall raise a great 
deal of cotton, for it grows very easily ; but we have 
hardly tried it fairly yet. And here is my arrow- 
root. Did you notice the biscuits we had this morn- 
ing, and the bread and cake that were on the table 
last night ?" 

''Yes," replied Clara; "they were very white 
and nice." 

" Well, they were all made of arrow-root. You 
see, it can be raised without any trouble hardly, and 
when it is ripe, we take the roots and pound them, 
and throw them into some water, stirring them 
about for some time ; then we strain the water 
into another tub, and let it stand until the arrow- 
root is settled at the bottom of the vessel, and we 
keep on washing and straining it until it is perfectly 
pure and white. Then we dry it in the sun, and 
it is ready for use. It is so easily made, and so 
very wholesome, that we use a great deal of it." 

" Do you ever make any to sell ?" asked Ben. 

" Yes, we sell all we do not want. We have 
never planted more than an acre with it, and last 
year I made from it fifteen hundred pounds of the 
best arrow-root I ever saw. I sold eight hundred 


pounds for fifteen cents a pound, and made one 
hundred and twenty dollars. 

" This is my orchard," continued Keziah, as they 
stood in a little grove of fruit trees. " I am not 
going to let you taste much of the fruit now, for 
that is the way so many of the emigrants get sick. 
Polydore almost died from eating too many bananas 
and pine-apples." 

The children found the denial a very hard one. 
The orange-trees, laden with their golden fruit 
hanging just above their reach, was a strong temp- 
tation, and Keziah could not resist their entreaties. 
There were a number of lemon and lime trees, and 
many others which the new-comers had never seen 

" That is the guava-tree," said Keziah, pointing 
to one about as large as a peach-tree; ''and that 
other is the mango plum. Those two make the 
best preserves I ever tasted. I sent some to Mast'r 
Charles, made with my own sugar, and he sent me 
back word that they were as nice as any West In- 
dia preserve. "We have a great many other fruits. 
Pine-apples grow wild all through the woods. There 
are tamarind-trees all about here, and African cherry 
and peach trees ; and I have two or three cocoa-nut 
and bread-fruit trees growing near my house. In 
fact, I can't tell you all the kinds of fruits we have, 
for I hardly know them myself yet. 



Here is my vegetable garden," continued she. 
These are plantains ; they are very nice when 
they are well cooked, and we are never without 
them through the whole year. Those are bananas ; 
here are my Lima beans. I planted them four 
years ago, and there has not been a month since 
when I could not gather the greatest abundance of 
beans from them. These are sweet potatoes. They 
can be raised, like every thing else here, with but 
little trouble, and are very fine. We get enough 
from this little patch to supply our table nearly the 
whole year round." 

''And there are some black-eyed peas," said Ben. 

" Oh yes, we have plenty of them, and Indian 
corn too, though some of our folks think it is not 
quite as good as what we had in Virginia ; but I 
don't see much difference in it." 

"What is this tall plant?" asked Ben. 

" That is the cassada. The root of it is the part 
we use ; we generally roast or boil it, and I like it 
better than sweet potatoes. The natives almost 
live upon it. You see them walking about every 
where with a roasted cassada in one hand and a 
bunch of bird-pepper in the other, that they use for 

" That must be what I saw the children eating 
in New G-eorgia as we rode through," said Clara. 
^' Every one we met seemed to have a long potato 


in one hand and something else in the other. What 
is bird-pepper ?" 

Some people call it African cayenne," said Ke- 
ziah. It is a kind of pepper that grows all around 
here. You can find quantities of it through the 
woods about, and good judges say that it is better 
than any kind that is raised in other countries. It 
would be worth while, they say, to gather it for 
exportation. All that any one would have to do 
would be to pick the pods when they are ripe, and 
spread them out to dry." 

There seems to be no end to the valuable plants 
that are growing wild about Liberia," said Ben. 

Oh, you have not heard half of them yet," said 
Keziah; 'Hhere are ground-nuts that can be gath- 
ered by the barrelful, and very fine ginger grow- 
ing in the greatest abundance. AVe raise a great 
deal of it, and make two or three hundred dollars a 
year by it. But coffee is, I think, what we shall 
find the most profitable. You can find coffee-trees 
growing wild through the whole of Liberia. At 
Bassa many of the woods are full of coffee thickets ; 
and by transplanting scions from them, and taking 
a little trouble with them, we can make quite a 
good income in a few years. Nathan planted five 
acres in coffee about six years ago, and last year he 
made six hundred dollars by them. Our coffee is 
said to be as good as that from Mocha." 



" I wonder more people don't go into the busi- 
ness," said Ben. 

" They are just beginning to understand it," said 
Keziah, ''Judge Benson, of Bassa, has twenty acres 
of coffee. There are seven thousand trees on them, 
and from many of these he can get six pounds of 
berries a year." 

" That does not seem much to get from a tree," 
observed Clara. 

'' It is a very fair quantity," said Keziah ; they 
often do not yield as much as that ; though I have one 
tree that I gathered twenty pounds from last year." 
How long do they continue to bear ?" 
From ten to twenty years ; and I will promise 
you that, if you will devote three of your ten acres 
to coffee, you will be able to support yourselves en- 
tirely, clothe yourselves, and put your children to 
school with the produce of the seven acres, and be 
able to lay by all the money you get from your cof- 

" How much oug^ht that to be ?" 

''Why, at first it will not be much; but after 
they begin to bear well, which will be in six years, 
you ought to make at the very least three hundred 
dollars a year. 

" Besides all these," continued Keziah, "the bean 
that castor-oil is made from grows wild here, and 
the Croton oil is made from the seeds of one of our 



bushes. We have a great many valuable trees, too, 
that a settler might make a good deal of money by 
cutting, besides doing the country a good service ; 
for the more it is cleared the healthier it grows." 
What are the trees ?" asked Ben. 

" Besides the palm, the most valuable of all — 
and, by-the-way, did you observe our candles last 
night ?" 

Yes, they were quite good." 

" They were made of palm-oil. AVell, besides 
the palm, there is the Cam wood. That does not 
grow much near the coast ; the natives generally 
cut it, and bring it down here to exchange it for 
what they want. It is used for dyeing, and is very 
valuable. The gum-elastic-tree, and the trees that 
gum Arabic, and the copaiva balsam, and frankin- 
cense are obtained from, all grow around here ; and 
there are many kinds of timber that are useful for 

You seem to have a great deal of poultry," said 

''Yes, we have more chickens, and ducks, and 
geese than we care about, and lately w^e have be- 
gun to raise turkeys. We have a good many sheep 
and goats too." 

" Have you any cows?" 
Oh yes ; but they do not give as much milk as 
those in America. We have some small native 



oxen that we use for plowing, and find that they do 
very well. The people in the interior bring us down 
plenty of beef, so that we seldom take the trouble 
to raise any ourselves. We could easily do it if we 
wished. We have plenty of pigs, and all the care 
we have to take of them is to keep them from 

^'I am almost afraid to walk through this long 
grass," said Clara ; for I heard, before I came here, 
that Liberia was full of poisonous snakes. Have 
you ever seen any ?" 

I used to see one occasionally when I first came 
up here from Monrovia, but I haven't found one 
for a long time ; and there never have been half so 
many as there were in Virginia. Don't you remem- 
ber how many rattlesnakes Polydore killed in one 
year there ? and the copperheads and moccasins we 
used to see ?" 

But you have a great many insects ?" said 

Yes, we have, to be sure, and they give us 
some trouble ; and the woods are full of monkeys, 
that do a good deal of mischief sometimes ; but the 
more settled the country gets, the less we are an- 
noyed by any thing of that kind." 

AVhat pretty bushes these are," said Clara. 
''That is my fence," replied Keziah ; ''you see I 
have only a small place, and I wanted to keep it 


as nice as possible ; so Polydore found those bushes 
in the woods, and we made a hedge all around our 
farm with them. It looks very pretty, and, besides, 
it never needs any repairs." 

Do you and Polydore keep the farm in order 
yourselves ?" asked Ben. 

Oh no. I never do any thing but give my 
opinion now and then. There are plenty of natives 
that are glad to help us, and think a shilling a day 
a great deal," 

By the time they had examined Keziah's place 
in all its details, the sun was so warm that she 
thought it unsafe for them to expose themselves to 
its influence longer. After dinner, in which a 
nicely cured ham, and plump turkey, and sweet 
potatoes showed their familiar faces amid a variety 
of strange vegetables, Keziah left her guests to at- 
tend to her school. 

This consisted of about a dozen native children, 
and a few women whom she had collected, and 
was teaching to read and sew. The African girl 
whom she had brought up taught them in the 
morning, and Keziah usually devoted an hour or 
two in the afternoon to them, being regarded by 
these ignorant and docile children of the forest as a 
wonder in learning and skill. 

Late in the afternoon she walked over with Ben 
and Clara to Nathan's place. On their way they 



passed a farm, \Yliere every thing seemed to be 
growing in \yild luxuriance, certainly, but very 
much at its own will and pleasure. 

That belongs to Polydore's brother," said Ke- 
ziah ; " we can't make him believe that it is at all 
worth while to take the least trouble to keep things 
in order. He thinks if he makes as much as he 
and his family want off his place, he does all that 
is necessary. But he is very much improved since 
he came here. At first he wouldn't work at all, 
but said it was the women's place to do all the 
planting and raising the vegetables." 

They reached at last a substantial farm-house, 
standing in the midst of a well-cleared and culti- 
vated plantation of about forty acres, which Kezi- 
ah informed them, belonged to Nathan. The order 
and neatness in which the whole place was kept, 
and its flourishing condition, filled Ben with admi- 

"It looks just like him," said he; I always 
knew if Nathan had a fair chance he would be a 
rich man." 

Keziah informed them that, besides attending to 
his farm, he preached every Sunday to the natives, 
and had collected from among them quite a large 

The Africans are mighty curious to know how 
to read," said she ; " they think that it is the book 


learning that makes us so much ahead of them in 
every thing. One of their kings, Joe Harris, said 
that ' God made first white man, den black man ; 
den Grod held out both his hands — book in one, rice 
and palm oil in other. White man choose bopk, 
black man choose rice and palm-oil. Book tell white 
man how to get every thing else ; black man never 
get nothin' but rice and palm-oil.' " 

" Have you good schools here ?" asked Clara. 

" Yes, we have very good schools, and they are all 
free. They are supported by the different churches 
and societies in America. There is one at Monrovia 
that people say is equal to any common school the 
white folks have at home. We have three hish 
schools, perhaps more, for I remember, when I was 
last at Monrovia, they said there were to be two 
more established ; and we are trying to get up a 

In talking with Nathan, Ben asked him if he had 
ever wished to go back to America. 

''Never for one minute," said Nathan, with ener- 
gy; '' the first moment I stepped my foot on Liberia, 
I felt like a different man ; and if I had known that 
I should have died in the first six months, I would 
not have regretted my coming. It is a blessed thing 
to be able to bring up a family of children where 
they need not be ashamed of their color, and where 
their feelings as well as their rights are respected. 



Besides, they have such a good opportunity to make 
something of themselves here. I intend this little 
fellow," said Nathan, putting his hand on the head 
of a bright-looking boy about ten years old, " to 
be a. senator or a judge, if not a president. He is a 
native Liberian, and I mean him to show the world 
what stufl^ they are made of." 

You seem to be quite proud of Liberia," said 
Ben, smiling. 

To be sure I am," replied Nathan. When I 
think how little while it is since we have been any 
thing at all, I am surprised at the improvement we 
have made. I do not believe there ever was a na- 
tion before that has grown so rapidly. And the 
natives look up to us as something wonderful. Soon 
after I first came here, one of the kings, Long Peter 
they call him, said to Junius, 

'Here am I and my tribe, always afraid lest the 
bigger kings get mad, or get poor, or want goods ; 
then they come pounce on us, steal us, handcuff 
us, whip us, sells us slaves over the seas. Now 
settlers no such fear. Here I, my tribe. Devil 
King make us drink sassy- water — we die — we 
don't want to die — we die — settlers don't drink 
sassy- water — PU be settlers — PU be.' And he 
was almost beside himself with joy when we con- 
sented to receive him and his people under our pro- 



''Don't these natives give you any trouble?'' 
asked Ben. 

'' Very seldom. Last November Cresson, or, as 
the natives call it, Fishtown, was attacked for the 
second time by Grando, the chief of the tribe of 
Fishmen, and afterward they made an attempt on 
Bassa Cove ; but President Roberts went to the 
assistance of the people with some men, and the 
natives fled directly. Such things are very uncom- 
mon though, and the Africans are generally urged 
on by the traders. In this part of the country there 
is not the slightest danger, and in fact nowhere but 
in the extreme outskirts." 

The next day was Sunday, and the new^-comers 
were taken to a plain but comfortably-thatched 
church, where they heard a very good sermon from 
a missionary in the morning, and one in the after- 
noon from a colored clergyman. The Sunday-schools 
were well attended by the natives as well as the 
Liberians, and among the congregation Nathan 
pointed out to Ben several, who, he said, were con- 
verted Africans. One of them was a teacher in the 
Sunday-school, and also officiated occasionally as a 

'' The Baptist mission among the Bassa tribe has 
been for two or three years conducted by a native 
African and four native assistants, w^ho w^ere all 
educated in Liberia," said Nathan. 



One morning, a few days after Ben's arrival, he 
was awakened by the firing of a cannon, and numer- 
ous guns and pistols, at short intervals. He had 
been dreaming of America, and sprang up in great 
haste, thinking that it was the Fourth of July. He 
soon recollected himself, and said with a smile to 
Polydore, whom he found out enjoying the cool 
morning breeze, 

''AVhat does that noise mean? I thought, when 
I first woke up, that it was Independence day." 

" So it is," said Polydore; "iVs our Independence 
day. The twenty-sixth of July is the day we keep 
here. I was in Monrovia last year at this time, 
and we had a procession there, and an oration, and 
some very good music too. I wish we could have 
taken you there to spend the day; but we was 
afraid you might be made sick." 

^'I do not feel very well this morning," said Ben; 
''my head aches, and I have a little fever." 

" I s'pose you is going to have the 'climating 
fever ; people generally has it when they fust come 
over; but it won't last long if you keep your spirits 
up — not more than a week or two. Keziah is a 
fust-rate doctor ; she has nussed I don't know how 
many people through it, and knows jest what? to 

"But is there no regular doctor about here?" 
asked Ben. 


" Oh yes ; we has a white doctor and a colored 
one. I don't know which is the best, for Ps thank- 
ful to say I never needs one ; but some folks likes 
one best, and some the other." 

Ben's illness lasted only four or five days. At 
first it was rather severe, and he was somewhat 
alarmed ; but Keziah, knowing by experience that 
the most effectual cure in such cases was to prevent 
the patient from desponding, and to keep his mind 
as calm as possible, assured him that he was in no 
real danger. 

Just think you are going to get well," said she, 
^' and you will sure. I never knew it fail. But 
give up, and expect to die, and I don't know noth- 
ing that will do you any good. I know 'zackly how 
this fever works, and I tell you if you only keep up 
good courage, you will be well in a week." 

Thus encouraged, and with every thing around 
him calculated to cheer and animate him, Ben soon 
threw off his temporary illness. Clara was even 
more fortunate than he ; for, being naturally of a 
more tranquil temperament, she was less affected 
by the change of climate than he had been. Their 
children also suffered very little ; and within a 
month after their landing, Ben and Clara acknowl- 
edged with thankfulness that they had never felt 
better in their lives. 

" People don't always get off clear with one fit 



of sickness," said Keziah ; sometimes they have 
several attacks in the first few months. But, if you 
take proper care of yourselves, you won't be likely 
to be sick again. People that's imprudent must 
suffer for it." 

Ben selected his ten acres as near Polydore's and 
Nathan's as he could. A little cottage was put up 
for him for fifty dollars, that was amply large enough 
for his family. 

The first house I had built," said Nathan, " cost 
only twenty-five dollars, and it lasted me five years. 
I thought it was mighty nice then ; but we get 
proud after we have lived in Liberia a little while. 
Don't you notice the difference, Ben, between the 
colored people here and in Virginia. I can tell a 
man that's been raised in Liberia from an Ameri- 
can as soon as I see him." 

'*How?" asked Ben. 
Why, they seem more like men. You know 
Ben, you never felt like a man in America." 

" No," said Ben, with some reluctance ; " I used 
to try mighty hard, but I never could feel like any 
thing but a nigger." 

Well, here you forget all about your color in a 
little while, and every body else that comes here, 
white or black, seems to do so too. See if it isn't 

Ben did notice, and by his observations he re- 


ceived the same impressions so clearly stated by 
the Rev. Mr. Grurley, in his report concerning Li- 
beria to the Senate of the United States, where he 
says ; 

From personal observation, I may speak with 
confidence of the mighty effects wrought upon the 
intellect, hopes, and purposes of the authorities and 
people of Liberia, by the freedom which has ever 
been theirs upon that shore, and by the high posi- 
tion which they have now taken of national inde- 
pendence. Some of the most distinguished men in 
the republic are among those who went thither in 
childhood, have received their entire education in 
its schools ; and bear in their manners, their whole 
deportment, and upon their very aspect, the signs 
of a just self-respect, of subdued passions, of vir- 
tuous resolution, and of a mature and well-disci- 
plined judgment." 

The opinion of Dr. Durbin, well known as one of 
the most prominent divines of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, also founded on facts coming under 
his own knowledge, should not be without its effect. 
In an address to the House of Representatives in 
the capital of Pennsylvania, he observed : 

I am a native of, and was reared in a slave 
state. I have seen the colored man under all condi- 
tions in this country, from the rice plantations in 
Greorgia and South Carolina, to the cold regions of 
K 2 



Maine and Canada. I kno\Y his position and capa- 
bilities in America ; I know he never can obtain 
freedom and equality before the law of the Legisla- 
ture, and still more imperious law of society ; he 
can not obtain such freedom and equality as his 
heart naturally and justly yearns after. The dif- 
ferences between his race and ours are such, that 
political and social equality is impracticable. "What 
changes, moral, political, and physical, agents act- 
ing through centuries to come may work out tend- 
ing to assimilate the white and colored races, no 
man can foresee. We are called on to act under 
the present conditions of the case ; and to act for 
the good of the colored man, and for the honor, 
safety, and peace of our country. I say, then, 
knowing as I do the positions and capabilities of 
the colored man in America, he can not attain to 
the functions and enjoyments of a man among us. 
He is not, and can not be free in the proper sense 
of the word ; the pressure that keeps him down is 
irresistible ; he can not rise to a manly hope or am- 
bition ; he can not develop his powers here, and 
show what he could do if circumstances were fa- 
vorable. If by industry and good fortune he make 
money, and rear a family of sons and daughters in 
a respectable manner, where will he find suitable 
alliances for them ? I need not pursue this subject. 
I have talked with such, and found them faint and 


discouraged with the prospects before their chil- 

" But transport these people to Africa, with our 
religion, our civilization, though in a low degree, 
and our political institutions, and experience has 
shown that there they become men, and show them- 
selves to be men. After large opportunities, and 
long and patient observation, I am persuaded that 
nowhere else but in Africa is the African a jnan, 
I have reason to know that there he is a man. 
Shortly after I went to New York, to take charge 
of the missionary affairs of our whole Church, I re- 
ceived large dispatches from our African mission. 
Among them were the minutes of our mission con- 
ference in Liberia, composed wholly of some twenty 
colored men ; also the annual report of the superin- 
tendent of the mission; together with reports on ed- 
ucation, on Church property, and the extension of 
the mission, and on various subjects. Upon open- 
ing the papers, I was struck with the clear, bold 
hand in which they were generally written ; and, 
uponyeading a portion of the annual report and 
minutes, I was astonished at the perspicuous ar- 
rangement of the matter, and the clear and forcible 
language in which it was expressed. I turned to the 
clerk, who had been accustomed to see dispatches 
from Africa, and asked him if colored men wrote 
these papers. He smiled, and replied there is no 


white person in the colony, except one lone woman, 
Mrs. AYilkins. a martyr to the education of the chil- 
dren of the colonists. The position, the circum- 
stances of the African colonist in Liberia make him 
a man and give him action. Transplant him there, 
and he becomes a man. and takes place among men. 
His descendants, in a few generations, may stand 
forward grandly in the affairs of this world.'' 

Ben experienced in his own spirit the invigorat- 
ing effects of the moral atmosphere of Liberia. His 
ambition once more aroused, and his energy called 
into exercise by objects worthy of it, he soon laid 
aside the habits of indolence into which he had fall- 
en during the latter part of his life in Philadelphia, 
and set himself so vigorously to work clearinsr and 
cultivating his farm, that eight months after he 
landed at Monrovia, he sent word to Mr. Peyton, 
through Junius, that ''he was living of his own, 
enjoying vegetables of his own raising, and that he 
and his family had never been in better health or 
spirits, and that he was already beginning to feel 
proud of being called a Liberian.'' 

And well might he cherish the title. But thirty 
years had passed since the colonists first landed, a 
little band of weak men on the coast, and but four 
since they became a nation, and already their influ- 
ence was felt by nearly a million of people. AVherev- 
er their power extended, the slave-trade died away; 


abolished by their firm, though gentle control more 
surely and effectually than by all the armaments of 
England or America. More than six hundred miles 
of a coast once dotted by barracoons, and given up 
to that abominable traffic, were now freed from its 
accursed influence. 

The independence of Liberia had been acknowl- 
edged by G-reat Britain, France, Belgium, and Prus- 
sia. Its reputation and commerce was rapidly in- 
creasing, and its influence over the natives was as- 
tonishing. Though there were not, in 1852, eight 
thousand emigrants in Liberia and the Maryland 
colony together, yet they had nearly two hundred 
thousand Africans living in their republic and sub- 
mitting to their laws. More than three times as 
many had given up the slave-trade as the first step 
toward becoming their allies. And without being 
reproached as an enthusiast, the calmest mind 
might regard it as a moral certainty that the time 
would come when all Central Africa would look to 
Liberia for protection, for instruction, and for laws, 
as well as for Christianity. 





The voice of my departed Lord, 
'* Go teach all nations," from the Eastern world, 
Comes on the night air, and awakes my ear, 
And I will go. 


The fifth article of the fifteenth section of the 
Constitution of Liberia has the following provision : 
The improvement of the native tribes, and their 
advancement in the arts of agriculture and hus- 
bandry, being a cherished object of this government, 
it shall be the duty of the president to appoint in 
each county some discreet person, whose duty it 
shall be to make regular and periodical tours through 
the country, for the purpose of calling the attention 
of the natives to these wholesome branches of in- 
dustry, and of instructing them in the same ; and 
the Legislature shall, as soon as can conveniently 
be done, make provision for these purposes by the 
appropriation of money.'' 

Although the Liberians have not yet been able 
in their short existence to carry out this purpose to 


any extent, yet, through Mr. Peyton's liberality, 
Junius had, almost from his landing at Sherbro, 
been at liberty to devote himself to this cause. 
While the other emigrants waited at Fourra Bay 
until a home could be found for them, he, unfet- 
tered by any ties, resolved to comply with Mr. 
Peyton's wish, and act as a missionary among the 
heathen tribes around him. Freely he had received, 
and freely he was willing to give. 

He found the people sunk in the deepest igno- 
rance and superstition. They, indeed, acknowledg- 
ed a G-od as the creator of the world, but worshiped 
the devil as the ruler of human affairs ; and their 
mode of worship, their actions and feelings, were 
such as the spirit of evil might be supposed to have 
inspired. At the entrance of almost every village 
which he visited, Junius found a pole set up, with 
a rag or a few fibres of the bark of some tree dyed 
black fluttering at the top. This the people con- 
sidered sacred, and called their gree-gree pole ; and 
the mysterious motions of the gree-gree, as it waved 
in the wind, was supposed to prevent the entrance 
of the devil or conciliate his favor. 

Besides this general gree-gree or charm, each 
house and individual had their private gree-grees 
or fetiches, which they regarded as endowed with 
intelligence, and possessing power to do them evil 
or good, according to their deserts. By means of 



these, they thought that their priests were made 
acquainted with the most secret thoughts and in- 
tentions of their owner. The gods to which this 
benighted people attribute this power, and to which 
they pay awful reverence, are pieces of yams, bro- 
ken pots, feathers of fowls, horns of animals, broken 
bows and arrows, knives and spears. To these they 
erect altars, and place before them dishes of rice, 
maize, and fruit. Those who can afford it, sacrifice 
weekly to them a cock or sheep. 

In the centre of some dense forest, a portion is 
selected, and called the gree-gree, or devil-bush. 
Into this no woman or boy is allowed to intrude, 
under heavy penalties ; but once a month the head- 
men meet there, and sacrifice to the power of evil 
a goat or some other animal ; and the control of 
the oracles that proceed from the devil-bush is 
absolute over the ignorant African. 

The belief in witchcraft was and is universal, 
where the spirit of Christianity has not shed its 
blessed light. This gives the priests immense 
power over the inhabitants. 

Dark and magical rites, incantations, and bar- 
barous customs are continually practiced, accom- 
panied by all the terrors that the dread of a malig- 
nant being and the fear of unknown evil can invest 
them. Upon the death of any one, excepting infants 
and aged persons, the cry of witchcraft is imme- 


diately raised, and the friends invariably institute 
an investigation to discover who ^'made witch" for 
the deceased. 

The power of determining the question rests with 
the priests, and is one of the chief sources of their 
influence over the people. They have several 
ordeals, to which all who are objects of suspicion 
are forced to submit. Sometimes they are obliged 
to grasp heated iron, or to plunge their hands into 
boiling oil ; if innocent, it is alleged that they suf- 
fer no pain ; if they are burned, they are punished 
as guilty. The most common and severest test is 
the ordeal of sassy-wood. This is regarded as infal- 
lible. The suspected person is forced to drink a 
strong decoction of the bark of the sassy-tree. This 
is sometimes soon tin-own off the stomach, when 
the individual is regarded as innocent ; but this 
seldom happens, and when it does not, the sufferer 
is invariably condemned to death. At one time 
Junius arrived at a village a few miles from the 
coast just after the death of the headman. A 
secret investigation was going on to discover the 
witch. Anxious to see the result, he remaineJ. 
For a long time the search was fruitless. At length 
a gree-gree man, by continued incantations and 
daring diabolical communications, succeeded, and 
the hapless murderer was brought to light. He 
protested his innocence in vain. The result of the 



ordeal was unfavorable, and he was condemned to 
die. Junius exerted all his influence against the 
sentence ; but in vain. He remained with the 
tribe two weeks, and during that time three per- 
sons fell victims to this practice. The other two 
were women, who were accused of causing the 
death of a man who died from a wound he had 
received in battle. 

This ordeal is so powerful an engine of state 
policy, that the kings are unwilling to abandon it. 
It is the right arm of an African monarch. By 
keeping on terms with the gree-gree men, they can 
rid themselves at any time of a dangerous or aspir- 
ing subject. And the priests can so arrange these 
tests as to make them produce any result they wish. 
By weakening or strengthening the decoction of 
sassy- wood, they can make it innocent or fatal, as 
interest or inclination may lead. If the trial is to 
be made by heated oil or iron, they can, by previous 
application of some preparation to the part to be 
operated upon, enable it to resist the effect of heat, 
and the accused escapes uninjured. Thus this sys- 
tem puts the life of the whole community in the 
hands of the priests, who, of course, would use every 
effort to perpetuate a custom so favorable to their 
power. But wherever the power of Liberia extends, 
whether over the native tribes who have become 
their fellow-citizens, or over those who are only their 


allies, these mock trials have been abolished. If 
that had been all that this settlement had effected 
for our common humanity, it would be enough to 
repay those who established it for all their efforts. 

Junius also found slavery prevailing among all 
the tribes he visited. And the condition of the 
slaves was indescribably worse than any thing that 
he had ever seen, or heard, or imagined before. 
By far the greater number of the people were in a 
state of the most abject servitude to masters, who, 
without the slightest compunction, would inflict on 
them the severest punishment, and would even kill 
and eat them, or throw them alive on the funeral 
pile at pleasure. 

He had heard a great deal of the power of the 
King of Dahomey, a country lying in the interior of 
Africa, nearly two hundred miles from Liberia, and 
he resolved to venture upon a visit to that place. 
On his way there, he narrowly escaped twice from 
the hands of the slave-hunters. Once he was obliofed 
to conceal himself in the forest for several days, and 
at last crept out to take refuge in a large village 
that he had passed through a few days before. 

He found it dismiantled and in ruins. A few old 
people sat in despairing apathy amid the desolation, 
and the wail of some neglected infant arose occa- 
sionally on the air. Junius asked the cause of the 
change, so great and sudden, and learned that the 



slave-hunters had made a sudden descent on the 
village the night before, and left not a single strong 
man, or woman, or child in it. A few years after, 
he passed over the same spot, and it was so over- 
grown with rank grass and bushes, that he could 
hardly realize that it had not long before been the 
abiding-place of so many people, happy and con- 
tented in their few wants, and the abundant provi- 
sion nature had made for them. Nor was this a 
single instance, but as years rolled on, many other 
similar cases came under his observation. 

As he went farther into the interior, he found a 
great improvement in the country as well as the 
people. The land gradually became higher and 
more hilly. There were no burning sands or un- 
wholesome swamps as along the coa.^t, but an un- 
dulating surface of hill and valley, covered with 
trees larger and loftier than any that he had ever 
seen before. Beautiful streams of cool and pure 
water crossed his path at short intervals ; and the 
soil was evidently of exceeding fertility. 

But though rich in all natural resources, the large 
country through which Junius had to pass was very 
thinly peopled, owing to the devastating wars and 
slave hunts of which for more than a century it 
had been the theatre. The region lying near Da- 
homey was subject to the inroads of this terrible 
people, whose king derived all his revenue from the 
sale of his slaves. 



At last he reached Dahomey, and found his way 
to its capital unharmed. Taking his stand under 
a palm-tree that grew near the houses, he began to 
tell the idle throng that soon gathered around him 
some of the more important truths revealed in the 
Bible. They discovered that he was from Liberia, 
of which place they had heard wonderful accounts. 
Without heeding the precepts he was enforcing, 
they began to ask him all kinds of questions, some 
idle and childish, and others showing a great degree 
of acuteness. At last rumors of an American hav- 
ing come to his dominions, reached the ears of King 
Grezo, who commanded him to be brought to his 
presence. A troop of Amazons, the king's female 
guard, and his bravest and most trustworthy sol- 
diers, were drawn up to receive the stranger, and 
impress him w^ith a feeling of awe. All around the 
king's residence the ground was paved with human 
skulls, and Junius was obliged to push them away 
as he walked if he did not wish to stumble over 

He found the king, a commanding, intellectual- 
looking man, proud, stern, and haughty, simply 
dressed, and sitting amid his wives and ministers. 
He asked Junius many pertinent and comprehen- 
sive questions about the objects and state of the 
settlement at Liberia. Junius answered them satis- 
factorily, and went on to tell him about many of 



the strange things to be seen in America, about 
the condition of the civilized portion of the world, 
and their wonderful inventions. 

While they were conversing, word was brought 
that a town, that had long held out against the 
Dahomans, was at last reduced to submission. 

That would please my father," said King G-ezo; 

I must let him know it. Send a slave here." 

A slave entered calmly. The king gave him the 
message to be delivered to his father, and when he 
had finished, at a nod his prime minister arose, and, 
taking a rude ax, in one moment the slave's head 
rolled in the dust. 

''I have forgotten something," said the king; 

send me another." 

Another entered, and, the message being finished, 
the same scene occurred. 

Junius looked on in horror. 
Why is this ?" asked he. 

^^My father is in the land of spirits," said the 
king ; ''is there any other way to communicate 
with him ?" 

Junius had heretofore used all his eloquence to 
excite a feeling against the slave-trade ; but now 
he thought that even to live a slave would be prefer- 
able to so uncertain a tenure upon existence as the 
subjects of King Grezo possessed. He suggested to 
that monarch the pecuniary advantage he might 


derive from selling those whom he sacrificed so 
wantonly. The king proudly answered, 

I have killed many thousands without thinking 
of the slave-market, and shall kill many thousands 
more. Some heads I place at my door, others I 
throw into the market-place, that people may stum- 
ble over them. This gives a grandeur to my cus- 
toms ; this makes my enemies fear me ; and this 
pleases my ancestors, to whom I send them." 

Junius found it impossible to convince him of the 
enormity of this practice, or to induce him to set 
the least value upon the life or comfort of a slave ; 
but he listened to him with a degree of forbearance 
and respect that could only be accounted for by his 
clear perception of the superiority of the civilized 
man over the savage, and he seemed to desire the 
friendship of the Americans, as he called the Libe- 
rians, rather than their enmity. 

The missionary did not remain long there, for he 
saw that the time had not yet come when the Gros- 
pel might be proclaimed with any prospect of suc- 
cess in that bloody land. He went where he could 
employ himself more usefully than in gratifying the 
idle curiosity of the vacant-minded savages, who 
crowded around him daily to question him. 

There were many kings who received Junius 
with great kindness, and listened to him with the 
utmost respect. One of them went so far as to wish 



that his son had been a slave in America, that he 
might have learnt 'Merican fash." He asked Ju- 
nius to take two of his children to Monrovia, that 
they might learn what they could there, saying, that 
he wished them to be wiser than their father. 

As the principles and character of the settlers of 
Liberia became better known, a missionary from 
among them was welcomed with increasing warmth, 
till at last their eagerness for teachers, or men with 
the book," as they called it, became so great that 
it was almost painful. 

A few months before Ben's arrival in Liberia, 
Junius had been on one of his usual tours through 
the interior, visiting, as far as he could, every native 
village within twenty miles of Liberia. He found 
that a great change had taken place among the peo- 
ple since he first journeyed through their towns. 
The desolating wars that each petty tribe had felt 
obliged to keep up with their neighbors in self-de- 
fense had ceased. The quiet of a universal peace 
prevailed throughout that once-troubled land. Nev- 
er had they been so willing to listen to God's mes- 
senger, or so anxious to learn His will. In what- 
ever place he stopped, he had only to say, I wish 
to talk Grod palaver to you," and in a few minutes 
a crowd would be assembled to listen to what he 
had to say. Neither was it necessary to use flat- 
tering words, nor to speak with respect of their su- 


perstitious observances. With the utmost boldness 
he was accustomed to denounce their ordeals, their 
gree-grees, and then- fetiches, as delusions of the 
devil, and to tell them that to God alone they must 
look for salvation ; and kings as well as people 
would listen in meek submission to the words of 
one, who swept away as cumbering rubbish the 
whole system of worship on which they had been 
accustomed to rely for temporal and eternal safety. 
They seldom argued against or opposed his teach- 
ings, but^would say, We never prayed to G-od; we 
don't know how to come to him. How must we 
seek Grod? What must we do to find him? How 
can we forsake our sins?" And not withheld by 
the pride that often prevents the civilized man from 
openly acknowledging his dependence on his Maker, 
when the missionary revealed to them the only way 
of approach to Him, they might often be seen the 
same hour kneeling, king and people together, im- 
ploring the mercy of Grod. 

Of course there were difficulties to be overcome 
and privations to be endured on these journeys. 
After toiling all day over hills and through the 
thick undergrowth, Junius was often obliged to 
throw himself upon the bare earth at night, without 
food, and sleep with no protection but a fire from 
the leopards and other wild animals that infested 
the forest. But he forgot all his sufferings when 



he entered one of their villages, and met the warm 
reception of the people, and saw how anxious they 
were to hear and learn the truth. Often they prefe>s- 
ed him with such urgent entreaties to remain, that 
it was with difficulty he could force himself away 
from them. There was hardly a town through 
which he passed where a teacher might not have 
found full employment — and what employment 
yields so rich a harvest as this of teaching the in- 
quiring heathen ? — but there were no laborers ready 
for the work. The Macedonian cry, uttered with 
an earnestness that almost amounted to agony, was 
heard on all sides ; but there were few who seemed 
willing to emulate the self-devotion of St. Paul. 

Junius had a favorite project to which he had di- 
rected his thouc^hts and exertions durinor this last 
tour. It was to select some spot that would be eli- 
gible for the location of an inland colony. He found 
it easy to do this. After traveling a few miles from 
the low lands lying along the coast, the country 
became at once beautiful and healthy. No longer 
level and marshy, but hilly and undulating, with 
clear streams flowing through it, and shaded by 
dense forests, there was no malaria to dread or guard 

The great difficulty was not to find a suitable 
place for a settlement, but to obtain settlers who 
would be fitted for their work. If he could but see 


established in these dark places of the earth a 
Christian colony, with their houses, barns, and 
mills, wagons, roads, fences, farms, and weaving 
fields," with their schools, their churches, and the 
influence of their regular and Christian life, he felt 
that one great step would be taken toward the con- 
version of the whole surrounding country. 

Pent up within their coasts as the Africans are, 
with no large gulfs or rivers, as in Europe and 
America, giving free access from the ocean to their 
farthest centre, almost the only way of reaching the 
inland tribes to do them any permanent good, is by 
planting Christian colonies among them, from which 
an influence may radiate that will transform the 
whole continent. 

Much has been done for Africa in the last thirty 
years. The first step, in all enterprises the most 
difficult, has been taken and proved successful. 
Liberia has outlived the doubts of the weak-heart- 
ed, the sneers of the disbelieving, the open opposi- 
tion of its foes, and is now a great and triumphant 
reality. But much yet remains to be done. The 
promise so assuredly given, that " Ethiopia shall 
stretch out her hands unto Grod," is on the verge 
of fulfillment. Let not the heavy blame of delaying 
that blessed event one day or hour rest on the head 
of those to whom Providence has intrusted so many 
of its exiled and homeless children. 



We have subjoined in this Appendix documents for the most 
part written by colored persons from and about Liberia, showing 
the estimation in which that country is held by those who have 
the best opportunity of judging concerning it. Only a few letters 
arc inserted, not for any want of materials, for enough could be 
obtained to fill a volume, but because the main object was to 
show that the statements in the preceding work have not been 
exaggerated. Most of the writers are well-known inhabitants 
of Liberia, whose names are sufficient guarantees for the fidelity 
of their assertions. 

The American Colonization Society, commenced amid distress- 
ing discouragements, now occupies a commanding position, hav- 
ing branches or co-operating societies in nearly every state and 
territory in the Union. A few years will see the national gov- 
ernment engaged in this great work of colonizing the free colored 
people in Liberia. 


Mr. Wilson is an emigrant from Norfolk, Virginia. He was a 
freeman, and exercised the office of a clergyman, while he sup- 
ported himself by his trade as a carpenter. In 1837, he went to 
Liberia for the purpose of examining the colony. On his return, 
he made an Address to the Free People of Color in the United 
States. In it he says : 

" After more than a year's residence in Liberia, I have returned 
to the United States. I went to satisfy myself; I sought every 
opportunity of informing my mind. Some of the things already 



said about the colony are a fair and candid expose of things as 
they exist : other persons are too favorable in their estimates ; 
while a third class, with hearts bleeding for the loss of friends, 
or angry at the loss of property, have wielded their pens to bring 
the whole scheme into disrepute. I hope to correct these state- 
ments. The facilities held out by Liberia are rarely equaled. 
Industry and economy meet with a sure reward. For proof, look 
at a Williams, a Roberts, a Barbour, and others, who, a few years 
ago, possessed hmited means, but who now can live like the 
wealthy merchants of Virginia. 

The morals of Liberia I regard as superior. A drunkard is a 
rare spectacle. To the praise of Liberia be it spoken, I did not 
hear, during my residence in it, a solitary oath uttered by a set- 
tler. The Sabbath is rigidly observed and respected. 

" If the colored man desires hberty, Liberia holds out great 
and distinguished inducements. Here you can never be free." 

To prove by his actions as well as his words his high apprecia- 
tion of the advantages enjoyed by his race in Liberia, Mr. Wil- 
son soon sought a permanent home there. After his arrival, he 
writes : 

I am more in favor of the colony of Liberia than when I left 
it on my return home. Xo. there is no place like this for the 
colored race to be found in their reach, where they can enjoy 
the same privileges as here. To fly to the North or South is all 
folly ; to go to Canada or Ha\ti is nonsense ; for in either there 
are obstacles as high as mountains. Here is our home." 

In 1840, during the contest with Gatumba, which terminated 
so fatally for him, Mr. Wilson's eldest son was kiUed while bear- 
ing a flag of truce to the savage tribe. But this, instead of dis- 
heartening, seems rather to have strengthened his love for his 
adopted land. In a letter written shortly after this event, he 
says : 

" Since I have been in Africa, up to the first of December last, 
I can truly say I have enjoyed almost uninterrupted pleasure ; 
but O, since that time, I have had sorrow. My eldest son was 
sent by the governor to a hostile native prince with the terms 



of peace ; and this fellow would have nothing to do With the 
embassadors, but drove them from his town, and they were fol- 
lowed by a merciless mob ; and my son, with Mr. Peale, a very 
worthy man, was slain on the second day of December last. I 
would give you a detail of the whole atFair, but it will be seen in 
the ' Luminary.' This has caused much grief, but I hope the 
Lord will give us grace. Pray for us. 

" Here, at White Plains, we are doing well. We have been 
greatly blessed in our own labors. Our native boys and girls make 
rapid improvement. They read and write. Many of them prom- 
ise great usefulness, and to be future blessings to their genera- 
tion, for many of them have already embraced the religion of 
Jesus Christ. We have a considerable farm under cultivation, 
and we intend to connect a sugar plantation and a saw-mill to 
this institution. Our work-shops are doing well. We are making 
wheels, bedsteads, tables, and other articles, such as are useful in 
the colony. The native boys are remarkably ingenious. Indeed, 
sir, there is a glorious reformation going on in this vicinity ; and 
as we believe the present wars are very near at an end, we must 
look forward to a more glorious day. But I must say that a great 
deal depends upon the advancement of the colony ; for we plainly 
see, as she grows and strengthens, in the same proportion do the 
heathen superstitions yield to her kifluence, and thus the way is 
open for the Gospel. This we have sufficiently proved. Our 
first object was to extend our labors as far as possible into the 
interior, even beyond the general influence of the colony ; but 
we soon found that our labor was lost. Then we changed our 
labors to the natives under the influence of the colony, and we 
find that every thing goes on well. My opinion is, that the only 
thing now wanting is men and means, and the barren land will 
soon become a fruitful field." 

The colony in which Mr. Wilson's heart was so bound up 
became, in the course of a few years, a nation ; and he, with ten 
others, was chosen to draw up the Declaration of Independence 
and Constitution. Both documents are such as would do honor 
to any class of men in any country. 

L 2 




The Rev, Aaron P. Davis was bom a slave in Virginia. In 
1834, when he was about forty years old, he, with one hundred 
and nine others, was emancipated by the will of Dr. Aylett Hawes. 
On the twenty-fourth of October of the same year he sailed with 
his freed fellow-servants for Liberia, under the auspices of the 
Colonization Society. Soon after his arrival at Liberia, he turned 
his attention to the improvement of his mind. He taught him- 
self to read and WTite. His business as a blacksmith demanded 
all his time during the day, but he devoted his evening hours 
to study, and his progress was rapid and remarkable. He is now 
independent and comfortable in his worldly circumstances, and 
the successful pastor of the largest Baptist church in Liberia. 

Letters from Rev. A. P. Daris 

Bassa Cove, October 11, 1849. 

A brief statement of things passing under my observation, at 
the request of Rev. R. R. Gurley. 

I came to Africa in the year 1834, in December, had a very se- 
vere attack of fever, lost a wife and child. Before I recovered 
from the fever, in 1835, the lOlh of June, the massacre occurred, 
but I sustained no bodily hurt. The main part of the survivors 
removed to Monrovia. I remained at Edina. In 1835, November 
29, the principal part of them returned to the Cove, and I with 
them, and the expedition from Savannah joined us. In January, 
1836, Governor Buchanan arrived with supplies, and gave em- 
ployment to all who would work, and encouraged the hearts, and 
strengthened the hands of every one possessing the spirit and in- 
dependence of a man. In that year I drew the lot on which I 
now reside, and built a blacksmith's shop, and followed that busi- 
ness, principally, from 1836 to 1847, when I accepted an appoint- 
ment as a missionary, in the service of the Southern Baptist 
Board. I was in low circumstances when I came to the colony, 
but by industry and economy purchased, my tools, built aU nec- 
essary houses, supplied them with furniture, and paid all debts 



in less than six years, after making such improvements as made 
us both comfortable and independent, by laying out town lots, 
planting fruit trees, &c., cultivating farms, &:c. I then accepted 
an appointment as a missionary, which was not until about the 
time last written. My time as a missionary is employed in vari- 
ous ways. 1. In the dry seasons, I preach through an interpret- 
er in as many of the adjoining native towns as possible. My 
circuit embraces eight native towns. The women and children 
sit on a mat of hides of animals, flat on the ground. I have preach- 
ed to large and attentive congi'egations. I think tlie preaching 
of the Gospel among them has not been without effect, though not 
many among the vast number make any profession of religion. 
All inquire after the day (Sabbath), and many observe it. All 
seem to be ashamed of their superstitious trust in gree-grees, 
while others have entirely renounced them. Their views as to 
a future state are like those of the heathen of other lands. They 
believe that a man dies and passes into a snake, fish, a monkey, 
or leopard. They also believe that a person, while living, can 
transform himself into a bird or animal, &c. 

2 I supply destitute churches with the AVord of Life, and per- 
form other needful services. 

3. In the rainy season I teach a day-school at Bassa Cove. I 
was present at the organization of the first Baptist Church in the 
county of Grand Bassa, and took part in the services. I was 
pastor of the first Baptist Church in the county of Grand Bassa. 
I assisted Governor Buchanan to organize the first Sabbath-school 
in Bassa Cove, on the spot where he noic silently sleeps under those 
large trees. The first Bible-class in Bassa Cove was taught by 
Governoi Buchanan in my house. I still have the honor to be 
pastor of that Church at Bassa Cove. I have not less than 75 
members of the congregation, a prosperous Sabbath-school, at 
least 25 Congoes and other natives besides. 

Bassa Cove, October 4, 1851. 
Very dear Sir, — Your favor of July 18th came safe to hand ; 
also the file of the " Colonization Herald," and the religious news- 



papers, by Judge Benson's hand. I sincerely thank you for a'l. 
I am happy, indeed, that the coffee I sent as a token of my good 
"Wishes for you, and the good cause, reached you, and found ac- 
ceptance. I hope soon to be able to send some for your market, 
but at present it brings us a better price on the coast ; however, 
you did not say what price might be relied upon. I also receivt d 
the letter and books from Dr. ]\Ialcom, and can say that they will 
prove a blessing to my Sabbath-school, particularly the class on 
whose account I wrote for them. In it are many men and women 
of families, some native youths. His books prove to be the very 
thing. I introduced them last Sabbath, to take up the morning 
lesson only ; read Testaments in the evening. Our new settle- 
ment (Cresson) is going ahead ; I still think it destined to be the 
greatest sea-port town on the coast. 

More natives are to be seen in our tov- n than ever before known. 
Confidence being fully estabhshed, they now acknowledge our 
power as a government. As a proof of this, the fishermen, who 
considered themselves so formidable a few months ago, were in- 
dicted for giving some of their fellows sassy wood, by which they 
put each on the trial for matters of great importance, and not un- 
frequently put each other to death that way. It has a stupefying 
effect, and operates differently on persons differently constituted. 
It possesses medical properties, rendering one insensible to pain, 
on others causing violent vomiting. Some of the fishermen we-re 
arraigned, and punished for committing offenses against the peace 
and dignity of the laws of the republic. Thus I trust hght after 
light wiU shine, and influence after influence spread, till the vast 
tribes of Africa be raised to the level of men and women. Edu- 
cation is to do this, to take away their present views and give 
them better. I rejoice to say, I have Uved to see that which I 
once thought could not be accomphshed — the settlement of Fish- 
town and Grando ; the great annoyance to our settlements is now 
as harmless as a lamb. Why ] Because a spirit of bravery, un- 
der God, went against him. 

Yours truly, A. P. Davis. 




The hero of Hediiigton is an emigrant from Tennessee. He 
is a carpenter by trade, and at the time of tlie attack upon Hed- 
ington he was engaged there in building a church and school- 
house for the Mission. The reader will remember that by his 
presence of mind and courage the enemy were driven back, under 
circumstances of such great disparity of numbers, that his suc- 
cess seemed miraculous to the simple-minded natives. Some 
came from great distances to see him, begging for his " gree- 
gree " or charm, and exclaiming " 'Merica man's God is God for 

He is as famous for his skill in hunting as for his bravery in 
battle.* During oae year Mr. Harris supplied the Liberia market 
with more than two hundred dollars' worth of venison, the prod- 
uct of his own rifle ; and his promise of taking a boa constrictor 
is no idle boast. 

A few years ago he visited the United States, in fulfillment of 
a promise made to his father-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Erskine, on 
his death-bed, to assist his remaining children and grand-chil- 
dren to emigrate to Liberia. He returned with thirteen of Mr. 
Erskine's descendants. 

Letter from Zion Harris. 

Caldwell, May 26, 1851. 

Rev. R. R. Gurley : 
Dear Sir, — I write to inform you that we are all well, hoping 
you and family are the same. I never will forget you for the 
great good in telling me and my father about the land of Liberia. 
I have got a good home. I would not change it for any under 
heaven I have tried it twenty-one years. I have borne the 
heat and burden of the day, and it gets better and better. I was 
eighteen years old when I came here. I have gi'own to be a 
man ; in America I never could have been a man — never would 
get large enough. Would my colored brethren believe this '? They 
keep writing to me to tell them all about the country. Let me 



tell them a little : Liberia has raised up her bowed-down head, 
and has taken a stand with some of the greatest nations of the 
earth. She has struck off the stone that bowed us down in Amer- 
ica. I have grown so large that I have had the honor and the 
pleasure of being a member of the Legislature five or six years. 
Did you ever hear of such a thing in America ? No, no — nor 
never will. I was in America a few years ago ; it was all the 
time, boy, where are you going \ old man, which way ] I was 
really tired ; I wanted to be a man again ; but never found it un- 
til I hit the coast of Africa. I even saw the change in the cap- 
tain ; he talked so familiar to you : " What is the matter, Harris] 
Harris is going to be a man again.'' Sweet Liberia I the love of 
liberty keeps me here. 

All of you that feel like it, my friends, come on home — the 
bush is cleared away — you can hear no one say there is nothing 
to eat here, ^^^ly, one man, Gabriel Moore, brought better than 
two hundred cattle from the interior this year ; another a hund- 
red ; some sixty, some fifty, &c. There are no hogs there, they 
say ; no turkeys ; why, I saw fifty or sixty in the street at Mills- 
burg the other day. INo horses ; I have got four in my stable 
now. I have a mare and two colts, and I have a horse that I have 
been offered a hundred dollars for here ; if you had he would 
bring five hundred. If you don't believe it, let sonicj jze ntleraan 
send me a buggy or a single gig ; you shall see how myself and 
wife will take pleasure, going from town to town ; throw the har- 
ness in too — any gentleman that feels like it — white or colored, 
and I will try to send him a boa constrictor to take his com- 
fort. I know how to take the gentleman without any danger. 
My oxen, I w^as working them yesterday ; and as for goats and 
sheep, we have a plenty. "VVe have a plenty to eat, every man 
that will half work. I give you this ; you are all wTiting to me 
to tell you ^bout Liberia, what we eat, and all the news — I mean 
my colored friends. 

Yours truly, Zion Harris. 




The subjoined letter from Rev. Mr. Williams will show how he 
estimates Liberia. Mr. WiUiams went out in the packet in July, 
and therefore had been but a short time in Liberia when he wrote. 
He went from Columbia, Pennsylvania, and is also well known 
and respected in this city and Baltimore. 

Bassa Cove, Liberia, October 5, 185L 
Dear Sir, — I write you a few lines by the packet, to let you 
know that I have not forgotten the kindness I received from you 
and the Colonization Society in preparing me for this land of lib- 
erty. I never shall forget the heartfelt thankfulness due to the 
society for helping me and my family here. We had one of the 
finest passages any one could have. Plenty to eat ; a good cap- 
tain, and one that was kind to all in sickness and health. All 
hands were good to us. I have not wanted to return once since 
I left the United States. I was twelve days at Monrovia. It is 
a fine town ; the people are kind, and doing well. I think this is 
a much better place for new beginners. I had the African fever ; 
myself and wife both took it on the same day. We had it about 
fourteen days. The doctor says we are over it, though we are 
weak ; but it is not so bad as I expected. Mr. Benson is prepar- 
ing a house at Cresson for me. It is a fine location for a town 
— the best one I have seen. I shall be the first one there. I 
look for more by the September vessel. I shall feel lonely for 
some time until more arrive. 

There is, and can be plenty of every thing raised here. The 
climate is fine and the land productive. Sweet potatoes of the 
finest quality, and as good as produced in New Jersey ; rice, sug- 
ar, coffee. I will send you some as soon as I can get about. I 
wish you would come out in the packet ; you need not fear the 
fever. I want you to see the finest country you ever saw. Cows, 
sheep, goats, chickens, and hogs are plenty. I helped to kill a 
hog since I came here, and saw it salted and smoked nearly as 
good as in Pennsylvania. It is cool here. I can and do wear 



two cloth coats. I have not felt a warm day since I left Balti- 
more. I think all the colored people that can take care of them- 
selves in America had better come here, for this is the place where 
they will do well. All they need is a small start ; and, above all, 
he is a freeman from the highest to the lowest. If I were sev- 
enty years of age, and knew as much as I now know, I would 
come to Liberia and be a man, and no longer a nigger. I shall 
write more when I see more ; I only write w^hat I see and feel 
I am truly yours, Leonard A. Williams. 


Jasper Boush is one of the company who went from Norfolk, 
Virginia, to Liberia, in July, 1850. And as he was extensively 
known to be an honest, upright Christian — one of the most intel- 
ligent of his class — industrious, economical, and prosperous ; 
standing high in the regards and confidence of the free colored 
people, he was selected as a fit person to inquire of concerning 
certain evil reports that have been industriously circulated, viz., 
that the emigrants from this country can enjoy no health in Libe- 
ria ; that the soil is sterile, refusing a support to the industrious ; 
that the laws are oppressive, and the government badly admin- 
istered ; and that the few who yet remain are a miserable set of 
wretches, always sick and sighing to get back again. 

His letter is a matter-of-fact refutation of those false and inju- 
rious rumors. 

Clay— Ashland, Liberia, May 10, 1852, 
Truly I am better and better pleased with Liberia each morn- 
ing when I awake and find myself in it. I could not be prevailed 
on by any earthly consideration to leave Liberia, or exchange it 
for any other country. Here I am in the land of my forefathers ; 
here I can enjoy all those rights which a benevolent God hath so 
liberally vouchsafed to man ; here I can exercise and improve 
my gifts and graces in enlightening, instructing, and exhorting 
the benighted sons of the forest in the truths of the Christian re- 



ligion ; here I can bow down in the sanctuary of the Most High, 
or at home, and unmolestedly worship the God of my fathers un- 
der my own vine and fig-tree, while none dareth to molest or 
make me afraid , here my children to their latest generation can 
enjoy the privileges of freemen in storing their minds with edu- 
cation and useful knowledge, and participating in the duties, &c., 
of civil government ; and here I have as many political, social, 
and religious rights as any man any where beneath Heaven's wide- 
spread canopy. And should not these considerations endear this 
my own country to me 1 I say, from the bottom of my soul, with 
gratitude to my good God for what I enjoy — yes. 

In addition to these blessings of situation, I am thrice blessed 
in the blessings of condition. I live in my own house, on my 
own farm of eighty acres, and eat every day of my life provisions 
and breadstufFs of my own raising. I have now growing, as my 
1852 crop, a large quantity of cassadas and potatoes, several acres 
of sugar-cane, several acres of rice, and several also of ginger. 
I have now to be transported from my nursery several thousand 
coffee scions, nearly one hundred cocoa scions (not cocoa-nut, 
mind you, but the chocolate), and about the same quantity of 
mango plums. My present crop, when it matures, will be worth 
about $600 or $700. My sugar crop alone will be worth over 
$200. I will have about one hundred and fifty croos of rice, 
which is worth from 75 cents to $1 per croo. 

I shall labor to benefit mutually myself and my country. I in- 
tend to be well represented in the commerce of Liberia, which is 
now increasing, and commanding the respect of the commercial 
world. I am convinced fully that agriculture is to be the great 
dependence of Liberia; that will furnish an exte'nsive commerce, 
produce manufactories, and in every way benefit the country. In 
America the free colored man can never be " a man." I believe 
it true that the free colored women are the great hinderance to 
the full tide of emigration which would have, and, indeed, ought 
to have poured long since into Liberia. Let them alone, how- 
ever, if they do not come now, they will come soon ; if they are so 
stupidly blind that they can not have an intelligent sight at their 



own and only interests, I am sure the inevitable force of circum- 
stances by which they are surrounded, the organization of the so- 
cial elements, both as to the circle in which they move and that 
in which the whites belong, and the genius of legislation, will 
soon, very soon convince them of their situation and condition. 

Sir, the free colored people can not go any where else but to 
Liberia, and they are beginning now to know that. They must 
come, and would to God that they would do it, not compulsively, 
but wiUingly and cordially, like rational beings. 

I and my family are well ; we enjoy as good health here as in 
America. I eat my allowance every day, setting down at each 
meal with a good appetite, made so by my industry, and rising sat- 
isfied. I tell you that the enjoyment of one's self in Liberia, by 
him or them who appreciate Liberia, is much hke religion — it can 
well be felt, but illy expressed. Please oblige me by represent- 
ing this letter, and my special exhortation to brothers Lemuel 
Bell, John Williams and families, and all my acquaintances, to 
come at once — come now to Liberiti, without unnecessary delay. 
Believe me truly to be yours in Christian love, 

Jasper Boush. 

The following letter was written by an intelligent and respect- 
able colored man, who left the city of New York for Liberia in 
October, 1851. It was addressed to a colored friend of his in the 
city : 

Monrovia, Wednesday, April 7, 1S52. 
With respect to this countr}\ my expectations are more than 
realized. I have found that the opinion I formed of Liberia while 
in America was ver>' nearly correct. This country is certainly 
a most beautiful one, and the climate delightful. I have often 
thought, since my arrival here, how the better class of colored 
people, or at least a portion of them, would flock to Liberia if 
they knew the real condition of the country and people. I al- 
ways thought that it was their ignorance of the country that 
caused their opposition to it, but now I am convinced of that fact. 



With regard to the United States having claims on Liberia, I 
would ask if England, France, Prussia, and Brazil would ac- 
knowledge her independence if the United States had any rights 
to or claim on the country 1 England has made this government 
a present of an armed schooner, and has a consul residing here. 
Brazil has also a minister residing here, but of a higher grade 
than consul ; he is charge d'alFaires. The facts are, I think, suf- 
ficiejit to convince any reasonable person that Liberia is really 
an independent republic, and that the United States has no claim 
to this country. There is a kind of blind prejudice which keeps 
most colored people from coming to this country, and for the life 
of me it is difficult to conceive why this prejudice exists ; for in 
the United States we are exposed to all kinds of insults from the 
whites, which, in nearly every case, we dare not resent ; whereas, 
in this country we are all equal, and can enjoy the shade of our 
own vine and fig-tree, without even the fear of molestation. In 
the United States we are considered the lowest of the low, for the 
most contemptible white man is better in the eyes of the law, and 
in the opinion of the majority of the w^hites, than the best colored 
man ; whereas, on the other hand, in this country there are no dis- 
tinctions of color ; no man's complexion is ever mentioned as a 
reproach to him ; and furthermore, every one has an equal chance 
and right of filling any office in the government that they may be 
qualified to fill. Liberia ought to be the most interesting coun- 
try (to the colored people of the United States) in the world, from 
the fact that it is the only republic entirely composed of and gov- 
erned by the colored people, and it is the only country where a 
colored man can enjoy liberty, equality, and fraternity, without 
having to encounter the prejudice of the whites, which exists 
more or less, in some degree, in every country in which the 
whites predominate. If this prejudice ever dies away, I believe 
that many generations yet unborn will have passed away before 
it. Although this country offers many inducements to colored 
people, yet it is not a paradise ; it has a few unpleasant features, 
owing principally to its being a new country. The most unpleas- 
ant feature that I know is the acclimating fever, and that is far 



from being as bad as most people in the United States think it is. 
On account of the improvements made, such as clearing, <kc., it 
is much more healthy here than formerly ; and also, the kind of 
treatment best adapted to the acclimating fever is better known. 
The acclimating fever is nothing more than a simple chill and 
fever, and persons are affected with it according to the degree of 
care they take of themselves, and also much depends on the con- 
stitution of the person. Some persons have told me that they 
were sick only one day, and that slightly ; while others (I speak 
of old settlers) had it one week, and some have had it from six 
months to a year or more. A person is seldom sick more than 
from one day to three weeks at one time. I have been in the coun- 
try a little more than three months, and have had several attacks 
of the fever. The longest time I was confined to bed was one 
day and a half. The symptoms in my case were a slight chill, 
followed by a very high fever. I felt no pain whatever during 
the continuance of the fever, but always after it I would have a 
slight pain in the back, which soon wore off. I would sometimes 
be sick in the morning and well in the afternoon. I once had the 
fever in the forenoon, and was well enough by night to attend a 
tea party. I am told that all children bom here, even the natives 
not excepted, have the fever while very young. This I have 
been told by mothers, and I have seen children with the fever 
who were bom here. The general health of the place seems to be 
very good. A person coming here wiU not find large cities with 
splendid buildings, and large bustling populations ; but we have 
only small villages with corresponding populations ; you wiU not 
hear the sound of numerous carts, drays, &c., but aU the carry- 
ing is done by native laborers, for the people have not yet begun 
to use horses and oxen for such purposes. Both may be had 
from the interior. Bullocks are brought down from the interior, 
but only to kill. There are at present only three horses in Mon- 
rovia ; they are used only for riding. I have ridden several times 
myself. The buildings are generally quite plain, built of wood, 
stone, or brick. There are, however, some very neat brick build- 
ings in Monrovia, and along the banks of the St. Paul's River. I 



made an excursion up this river a few weeks ago, and never did 
I enjoy a trip more than I did this one. The waters of the St. 
Paul's are delicious to the taste. The river is about half a mile 
wide ; its banks are from about ten to about fifteen feet high, and 
lined with fine large trees with a thick undergrowth. Among the 
other trees may be seen the bamboo, and that most graceful of 
all trees, the palm. This is the most useful tree in Liberia. I 
have drank the wine made from this tree, and have swung on 
hammocks manufactured from it, and I have seen very good fish- 
ing-lines made from it ; besides, numerous other uses are made 
of this tree. There are four villages on this river : Virginia, Cald- 
well, Kentucky, and Millsburgh. I saw in many places people 
making bricks, and busily engaged on their farms of coffee, sug- 
ar-cane, &c. I mast now come to a close, as I have but little 
more space to write. I will remark that I advise no man to come 
here unless he has a little money to begin with. A single man 
should have at least one or two hundred dollars ; although many 
come here without a cent, and yet do well ; but it is generally 
difficult to get a start in this country without a little means. For 
my own part, you may infer from what I have said that I like 
my new home. 

We learn that the writer of the following letter, addressed to 
the Rev. Mr. Pinney, has been appointed consul to Liberia by the 
British government, in place of Hanson, removed. Mr. Black- 
ledge seems to be a sensible man, and will, no doubt, prove an 
efficient officer and a valuable citizen to his adopted country : 

Upper Caldwell, Liberia, May 8, 1852. 
Dear Sir, — I embrace this opportunity to address you a line. 1 
am still doing what I can to demonstrate that Liberia is a rich and 
productive country. My crops of cane in 1850 produced 8000 lbs. 
of good sugar, and 500 gallons of sirup. My crop last year (1851) 



was not so large — only about 3500 lbs. of sugar, and 250 gallons 
of sirup. This falling off was in consequence of having to neg- 
lect my sugar-cane farm to give attention to J. R. Straw's cot- 
ton farm. I sell my sugar at 8 and 10 cents a pounds, which is 
quite a saving to the people of Liberia This year I am giving 
my whole attention to cane-raising, and I have a crop now in the 
ground which will produce a much larger quantity of sugar and 
sirup, and beat, possibly, both my preceding crops together. A 
few days ago, I, with one or two others, noticed, in many hills of 
cane on my farm, from forty-nine to sixty stalks. This can not 
easily be surpassed, I am persuaded, in any country. I am cer- 
tainly fully convinced that by industry a man may have all the 
necessaries of hfe, and a surfeit of the luxuries, in this \ery pro- 
lific and God-blessed country. I have the privilege, doubtless, of 
saying what no other person can say in Liberia — certainly before 
any other could say it, if there is any other who can say it now 
— ^that is, I use at my table coffee, sugar, sirup, and molasses of 
my own raising. I have now about twenty-five hundred coffee- 
trees, which will very soon enable me to export a small quantity 
to America. 

In connection with my sugar-raising, I would just say, that I 
have to regret that I have not a proper sugar-mill. In conse- 
quence of our very poor facilities, in both materials and manufac- 
turing miUs (being compelled to do with wooden fixtures entire- 
ly), not more than two thirds of the juice can be expressed from 
the cane ; hence, had I an iron mill from the United States, I, 
and others who make sugar, could, by even less labor than we 
now perform in grinding, have at least one third more of sugar, 
&c., from the same quantity of cane, than we now get. This, 
you perceive, is a clear loss. You see, therefore, we need some 
help, both in means and advice, to the development of our enter- 
prise and industry 

These remarks are not confined to sugar-growing, but are in 
every way applicable to the subject of agriculture in general in 
this country. I have been here now between nine and ten years, 
and am able to say something respecting Liberia's resources and 



the means necessary to their development. By the aid of capital 
(and where are we to expect it from rather than from the United 
States'?), arrow-root, ginger, cocoa, coffee, sugar, and other prod- 
ucts of superior quahty can be successfully raised here in large 
quantities, and exported to the United States, so as to create a 
competition in the market. Who, then, is sufficiently enterpris- 
ing among your acquaintances to embark in so noble a scheme, 
that of developing in Liberia her agricultural resources 1 

The want of means, together with the holding out no induce- 
ment whatever for industrial enterprise, are what have kept me 
so long in the background. Let us, therefore, have the means, have 
the tin, and let a door be thrown open in your country to invite 
Liberia's productions especially ; let an interest be thus awakened 
there in our behalf, and an impetus will be given to Liberia, which 
will force her forward in advance of the age. Be you sure, sir, 
that agriculture is the dependence, and will become the future 
glory and greatness of our youthful country. I speak here for 
myself ; others are capable of speaking for themselves. I believe, 
sir, that all the farmers in Liberia need help in the way I have 
alluded to. 

I am, most respectfully, sir, yours, &c., 

Abraham Blackledge. 


We could not give a more touching evidence of the blessings 
conferred on heathen Africa, through the instrumentality of Chris- 
tian education, than in the subjoined letter of Musu. It is but a 
few years since this consistent Christian was an ignorant Pagan. 
After acquiring a partial knowledge of the English language, he 
was admitted into the missionary school of Cape Palmas. This 
letter is a fine specimen of the happy change he has experienced 
— his walk and conversation being in beautiful conformity with 
his Christian profession, and rendering him a most useful auxil- 
iary to the devoted men whose lives are dedicated to the regen- 
eration of that dark Continent. 



All spiritual blessings be on my dear friend — whatever the 
tender heart or the almighty arm of the loving Jesus has to be- 
stow, may it be all yours ! What glad news you A\Tote to me 

about Mrs. . Did you see her \ Yes, giad and joy speak to 

my heart, and laugh come to my mouth. I beUeve that you have 
seen her ; you told me that you saw her, and that she wants 
very much to return to Africa as a niissionar}'. I have got a let- 
ter from her, and my believing and wishes are one, my gladness 
and happiness follow after. Oh my happiness is very great ; and 
a good, happy Christian, who is fixed to a point, go where he will, 
one object is his all. The crucified Savior is his happiness ; and 
this heaven he carries about with him. No time, no place, no 
circumstances, make any change. He has one Lord, one faith, 
the same yesterday, to-day, and forever. Come pain, sickness, 
death, the Savior's love and power bears him up. Come tempta- 
tions of all kinds, I will be with thee in the hour of temptation, 
says Lord God. "Wliere he is, nothing need be feared, because 
nothing can hurt. Oh, my dear friend, the true knowledge of 
Jesus Christ is certainly a cure for all the miseries which come 
upon the world by sin. There is no evil of mind or body, tem- 
poral or eternal, but our precious, dear Lord is by office engaged 
to remove. And shall not you, and I, and our friends value and 
love him \ What we set our hearts upon, what can bid so high 
for them as this adorable Savior \ 

Dear Mr. Rambo, I wish ver}' much to see you. How glad and 
happy I should be when I meet you, and Doctor May, and Mr. 
Hoffman ; and then — then my heart ,will talk to my mouth, and 
my tongue will speak all what I have done or seen. 
I am your affectionate friend, 

John Musu Neapo. 


The writer of the following letter is a native of Grand Bassa 
One of the Swiss missionaries (the Rev. Mr. Sessing), who were 
invited to Liberia by Mr. Ashmun, took him, when a child, under 



his charge, and subsequently he pursued his studies in the schools 
of Sierra Leone. He is employed by the Northern Baptist Board, 
and has a very good reputation as a Christian and teacher. 

Bexley, July 5, 1850. 
Reverend and Dear Sir, — In the following lines, which I have 
taken on myself to address you, I hope to find you in the enjoy- 
ment of good health, the same as we are at present. Our mis- 
sion still continues, with its different operations, in w^hich we are 
severally engaged, endeavoring daily to instruct the poor, benight- 
ei heathen. Not long ago we received a letter of instruction from 
our Board, that the lead of the mission alfairs is now considered 
to be under the superintendence of my native brother an:l cousin, 
Lewis K. Crocker, at Little Bassa, and myself ; which serious 
charge to keep we humbly depend on God to help us. Our schools 
are still kept daily, this, and that of Little Bassa, where brother 
Crocker resides. Our children are improving w^ell in their acqui- 
sitions of the different branches of knowledge, such as spelling 
hard words, reading, waiting, arithmetic, grammar, natural phi- 
losophy, &:c. I am glad to state that the grown people of this 
country, though they have not the privilege of improving them- 
selves by daily instruction, like the children, yet many of them 
are getting civilized, getting acquainted with the law, political 
economy, and secular improvement; forgetting their old habits, 
and adopting those of their civilized fellow-creatures. 

I am, dear sir, respectfully yours, Jacob Vonbrum. 


Mr. Abraham Cauldvvell was sent out to Liberia by an associ- 
auon of colored persons in New York, to examine the country 
and prepare the way for emigrants to go there. 

New York, November 24, 1852. 
Brethren and Fellow-countrymen, — You are aware that I 
Vv-as appointed traveling agent to Africa on the 23d of last De- 




cember, 1851, by the New York and Liberia Agricultural Associ- 
ation. I returned to Xew York on the r2th November, 1852, 
and it now becomes my duty to give you some account of Africa, 
and of the benefits to be obtained by emigration to that countrj^, 
and whether there are any benefits to be obtained by so doing, or 
not. I will endeavor to give you as true a statement as my 
humble abihty will admit. In truth and soberness, it would be 
needless for me to tell you that Africa flows with milk and honey, 
or that com grows without planting. Liberia truly is a garden- 
spot ; her lands are beautiful, her soil is most fertile, her prairies 
and her forests are blooming and gay, her rivers and streams 
abound with fish, and her forests wit«li game. Her Constitution 
is a republican government, and a most excellent code of laws 
are strictly observed. There are several churches and schools 
in Monrovia, and they are weU filled with people and scholars. 
The Monrovians are the most strictly moral, if not the most 
strictly religious people, I ever saw. 

I shall now speak of emigration, which I have some knowledge 
of. In 1823 I emigrated to Hayti, and in 1839 I emigrated to the 
island of Trinidad, AVest Indies, and lastly to Africa, where I 
find a peaceful home, where storms of prejudice never come on 
account of my complexion. I have been noticing for several 
years the movements of the Abohtion Society, and once thought 
they were right, and stiU believe they are sincere and really de- 
sire to elevate the colored man. Some of them have shown it 
too plainly for me to be mistaken. For instance, Mr. Gerritt 
Smith, who gave away part of his fortune. Many others have 
also sacrificed their good names and their money. But, alas ! 
how many good men have been deceived. I, for one, have been 
blind to my best interest. I hesitate not to say that colonization 
is the only thing to elevate the colored man. It is vain for many 
of us to talk of setthng on Mr. Smith's land, or of emigrating to 
Canada and setthng on land without money, which, comparatively 
speaking, few have. Africa holds forth inducements whereby 
the colored man may be elevated, without money and without 
price. There are many noble-hearted philanthropists, who stand 



ready, with willing hearts and open purses, to aid in the cause, 
if called upon. Awake, brethren, to your best interests ! 

.... Tftie government grants ten acres to each family, and if 
they want more they can get it for about 50 cents per acre. . . . 

.... Liberia calls for you. Emancipated slaves are not the 
men to enlighten a heathen nation, for they are not enlightened 
themselves. Liberia calls for men of understanding, energy, and 
capital. Come, brethren, let us leave our beloved country ; there 
is an asylum for you in Africa. You can there raise every thing 
to make you happy. There is a wide field open for the farmer. 
If a man plants ten acres of coffee, in four or five years he will 
realize a handsome income. Coffee requires very little labor, 
and it would be of more value than what you could make in Amer- 
ica in twenty years by labor. Every thing grows abundantly, 
with very little labor. It is a fine country for cotton, corn, and 

rice, though cotton is not much planted as yet You can 

salt down beef, pork, and fish. I would, in particular, recommend 
farmers to emigrate to that country. Monrovia is decidedly the 
best market, in my opinion. If you go there to labor by the day, 
month, or year, you will not make much, for laborers' wages are 
very low. 

I would advise emigrants to take as much house fiimiture as 
they need — for every thing they want here they want there — be- 
sides a little money, if they can. Mechanics may find w^ork, 
though wages are low. Men of capital, as mechanics, can do 
well, and are much wanted. Young men of energy, now is your 
time. Freemen of the North, Africa calls for you. There you 
can enjoy the luxuries of life and the freedom God intended for 
man. To all those who may feel friendly to the cause of emi- 
gration to Liberia, and wish to aid the same by giving, I say that 
donations will be thankfully received and forwarded to Liberia 
by the Association. Abraham Cauldwell. 

The following letters were for the most part sent to the Sec- 
retary of the Colonization Society, Rev. J. Morris Pease : 



From William H. Taylor. 

Edina, June*6, 1852. 
Dear Sir, — I am well, and hope you are the same. I arrived 
safe after a passage of thirty-seven daj^s from the Capes. I am 
happy to inform you that instead of being received in Baltimore 
in chains, as I was told I would be, I was received very hospita- 
bly. I am certainly grateful to the society for sending me to 
Africa. I am perfectly satisfied with the change, only that I had 
not started in 1842 instead of 1852. Here I stand erect and free, 
upon the soil of my ancestors, and can truly say to all of my race, 
you that would be free, Africa is your home, and the only home 
where he that is tinctured with African blood can enjoy liberty. 
This alone of him that loves liberty, for it is liberty alone that 
makes life dear. He does not live at all who lives to fear. Please 
say to any that may come to your office, that I say, come to Af- 
rica and assist us in raising a light that may never go out. En- 
terprise is what we want to make this country and people equal 
with any on the face of the globe. Should any of the people of 
Camden county, New Jersey, come to you for information, show 
them this letter — tell them that I say there is land enough and 
provision enough, by industry, for every enterprising colored man 
in the United States. I find in Edina a fine soil, that will raise 
any thing that a tropical country will produce. A fine, healthy- 
looking people, that are kind and benevolent — who receive the 
emigrants with the greatest kindness, and welcome them to the 
land of liberty. 

Should Charles S. Miller or Benjamin Griffin come to your of- 
fice, please encourage them all you can, and show them this let- 
ter, and tell them to come over and help to fight the battles of 
the Lord against the mighty. I stop writing to eat ray palm-nuts, 
which are very delicious when roasted ; the stone of the nut 
tastes just like the cocoa-nut. I add no more at present, but 
when I see m^ore I will add more. I remain. 

Yours respectfully, \Ym. H. Taylor. 



From D. A. Madison. 

Buchanan, July 2, 1852. 
Most respected Sir, — Liberia is destined to be the glory, the 
home, and the resting-place for all the dark race. Then let them 
come home, and rove abroad no longer, and that the chains of all 
who will or could come and will not may be made tenfold faster, 
because here they can come and be free. I mean my brethren 
of color. There has been no disturbance with the republic by 
the natives. 

I believe the American Colonization Society is doing more now 
to alleviate the condition of the colored race than ever ; for I do 
not know when I have seen as good-looking a set of people as 
came out in the Ralph Cross and by the Morgan Dix. 

I sent you a small box of coffee of my own raising, which I 
hope you may have got before this time. Our Sunday-school is 
doing tolerably well, and wishes to be remembered to you and 
their friends in America. 

Excuse my blunders. I think I said to you before that I have 
not had a day's schooling in my life. 

Yours in truth, D. A. Madison. 

From Charles Deputie. 

Mr. Deputie was born free — a native of Pennsylvania. 

Monrovia, January 10, 1853. 

Dear Friend, — Through a kind Providence we landed here on 
the 6th instant, in forty days from Baltimore. All well. I went 
ashore and met for the first time in my life on the same platform 
with all men, and the finest people in the world. I never met 
with more kindness in my life, and every attention is paid to vis- 
itors. On Sabbath day there were seven flags flying in the har- 
bor. I attended the Methodist Sabbath-school, and found it in- 
teresting ; was invited to address it, and made some remarks. 
There were seventy-five scholars in the school. I have been up 
the St. Paul's River. It is the finest country in the world. Mr. 
Blackledge's sugar farm is splendid. Dined with Mr. Russel, 



Senator of New Virginia, and think his land somewhat better 
than some of the rest. The river is sixty feet deep. Every- 
thing is getting along well, and all that is wanted are industrious 
men and good mechanics. I would say to my friends, that every 
thing that I have seen surpasses my expectations. Should I be 
spared to return, you shall see some articles that I intend bring- 
ing with me. I wish you would try to make some arrangement 
with the society to let me off with a free passage home, as I 
want to labor for the cause, and my means will be far run by the 
time I get to Philadelphia. Brother Williams intends doing all 
he can for the cause. We intend to go into the coffee business. 
Our object is to get five hundred acres of land in one plot, and 
have it settled by none but respectable people from Pennsylvania ; 
and I think that if you could send some from Philadelphia it 
would have a good effect. 

Respectfully yours, in the cause of liberty, 

Charles Deputie. 
P.S. — The immigrants by the bark Linda Stewart are all well, 
and almost all have settled at Millsburgh. 

From Henry M. West. 
A native of Philadelphia — born free. 

Buchanan, January 17, 1863. 
Dear Sir, — I avail myself of the present opportunity to address 
you a line or two, hoping they may find you as well as they leave 
me. I had laid off to write to you before this, but I have not 
done so ; however, I hope you will take the will for the deed. I 
have now been a resident of Liberia for upward of two years, and 
I think I can now safely express my opinion as regards the ad- 
vantages to be gained by locating here. Unquestionably this is 
the place, and these are the shores which are to contain the mul- 
titudes which have for ages been laboring under the greatest dis- 
advantages, and who have been allured into the belief that they 
will not be placed under the inconvenience of removing ; but the 
time has come which proves to a demonstration, more and more, 
that this is a forlorn hope. Doubtless there are many who a few 



years ago spurned the thought of leaving, who now turn their 
eyes in solicitude to various parts for relief, but there is no quar- 
ter which presents equal attractions with that presented by Libe- 
ria, and they know it ; and although they may be men of pene- 
tration, who foresee that something must be done, and these may 
be men of influence, who will exert this influence in a contrary 
direction, yet I believe the masses will speak for themselves, and 
such a mighty flood will be poured upon these shores as has not 
been witnessed since the world began. I have not written any 
on this subject, but I watched with increasing interest the signs 
of the times," as exhibited in the United States, and I am con- 
vinced that my impressions are not erroneous. There are many 
false representations made to deter persons who are anywise in- 
clined to emigrate to this country, but I feel confident that those 
who use this means to oppose us had better begin to think of 
some other method, for they will ultimately be exposed in the 
midst of their base attempts. Truth will eventually triumph over 

All that Liberia was ever represented to me to be I have found 
it, with the exception of a few base misrepresentations, to avoid 
which I spoke to but few of my intentions. I am here, and I am 
right glad of it. " The flesh-pots of Egypt" present no attractions 
to me. But to be deorived of my present privileges and advant- 
ages would be to me a sore calamity. But I have said more 
than I intended, and I fear lest I should tire your patience. But 
when I consider that so many of my brethren sufl^er themselves 
to be deprived of rights and privileges w^hich they are constantly 
attempting in vain to gain ; and when I know from experimental 
knowledge that it needs no such crouching, that the very things 
they want are within their reach, if they would only make the 
effort ; and when I see that they will obstinately refuse a bless- 
ing, in hopes of obtaining what I consider a curse, I can not re- 
frain from speaking. But I am thankful that I discern a ray of 
light through the heavy darkness — that men, laying aside old 
prejudices, are beginning to examine the subject in a diflferent 
light — and hope the day is not far distant when my brethren will 



cease to contend against their own interests, and when Liberia 
will have as many friends as now she has opponents. 

Pardon me for my lengthy remarks. For the last twelve 
months we have been blessed with tranquillity, a few rumors of 
war, but no outbreak. I hope to hear from you shortly. No more 
at present, but I -remain 

Yours respectfully, H. M. West. 

P.S. — You will doubtless remember me as being one of tlat 
company that sailed from New York by the bark Edgar, October 
2, 1850. I was originally from Philadelphia, Pa. H. M. W. 

From John D. Johnson. 

Mr. Johnson for some years kept a shaving and hair-dressiig 
saloon, and also a refreshment saloon, in the Equestrian Institute 
of William sburgh, N. Y. He was well know^n and esteemed by 
the community. 

Monrovia, January 23, 1853. 

Messrs. Bennett &l Smith : 

Gentlemen, — I promised to let you hear from me when in li- 
beria, Africa, but although I have been here two months, I can 
not at this time give you much account of the place. This little 
republic is so far ahead of what I expected to find it, that your 
good people of the United States would scarcely think I WTve 
narrating truth were I to describe all that I have seen. Liberia 
is a fine, fertile country. Things of every kind grow here. Tne 
people are more comfortable in every respect, and enjoy them- 
selves much better than I have ever known them to do elsewhere. 
The houses are very large, and are built mostly of brick and 
stone ; they are two stories and two stories and a half high ; 
from 30 to 50 feet front, and from 25 to 40 feet deep. The steps 
to these houses are composed of iron ore — a substance on whi /h 
the city is bjiilt. Iron ore is as plentiful in Monrovia as comm-' n 
stone is in Williamsburgh. 

Most of those who farm it are located on the banks of the St. 
Paul's River, about five miles from the city, and some are doing 
weU. Allen Hooper, of New York, has been here a little over 



two years. He had but small means to commence with, but now 
has one of the best coffee plantations on the river. He has seven 
thousand trees growing, two thousand of which are loaded with 
coffee ; and he is of opinion that next year all will bear. Next I 
will mention A. Blackledge, who is making about twelve thousand 
pounds of sugar a year, and some hundreds of gallons of molas- 
ses and sirup — all of which will favorably compare with the best 
imported articles of the kind. 

Sweet potatoes, Lima beans, Indian corn, cassada, plantains, 
and other table vegetables are raised up this river, which is 25 
or 30 miles long. A fine town is situated at the source of this 
stream ; it is called Millsburgh, and contains a population of 800 
or 1000 persons — the most of whom employ themselves in mak- 
ing brick and in hewing timber of all kinds for market. 

I have not ability to describe the advantages to be reaped in 
this country, nor have I the time. My business is so much better 
than it ever was before, that I am constantly occupied in attend- 
ing to it. 

One word as to the fever. My children have all had it ; so 
have all the emigrants who came out with us, except my wife, 
myself, and two others. None of them kept their beds more than 
two or three days. The fever is not as bad as it is represented 
to be. I have seen persons who have lived here for from two to 
twenty years, and who never had it at all. 

This is a great country for men and women who love liberty, 
and who love themselves, for money can be made here. 

Please to give my thanks to the gentlemen in your city whose 
philanthropy was the cause of my success. I trust you will pub- 
lish this letter for the information of those who may wish to know 
something of this country. My next letter shall be longer, and 
will contain much more information respecting this colony of 
Liberia — a day-star of hope for the colored race. 

John D. Johnson. 

From Stephen A. Benson. 
Mr. Benson was taken to Liberia when a chilcf. 

M 2 



Buchanan, February 1, 1853. 
Very dear Sir, — Fishtown was reoccupied on the 11th of Oc- 
tober, and the settlement is progressing rapidly — far in advance of 
what it was before the massacre. The immigrants by the Zeno, 
Morgan Dix, Liberia Packet, and Ralph Cross, enjoy much better 
health down there than they did up at this place, and even the old 
settlers moving there have derived much benefit. It has already 
commenced attracting settlers from other settlements in this 
county, and I am sanguine that in one or two years it will be in 
advance of the other settlements of this county. Physicians 
pronounce it a good place for emigrants to pass through their 
acclimation, and I know it to be an excellent place for them to 
to do well after acclimation. Sharp, Till, and Taylor, by the 
Ralph Cross, from New Jersey, are doing pretty well for begin- 
ners. They seem to be fine, industrious people, especially the 
two former. They occupy three of the houses I built on the 
banks of the St. John's River, opposite Factory Island, by direc- 
tion of your Board, and their produce is growing around them 
finely. They would have settled at Fishtown had it been occu- 
pied sooner. 

It affords me much pleasure to communicate, as it no doubt does 
you to hear, that our saw-mill has been in successful operation 
nearly three months. It is certainly a great acquisition to Libe- 
ria in general, and to this county in particular. The aborigines 
in our vicinity find abundant employment in cutting logs (timber), 
and floating them in rafts down to the mill. I assure you they 
are not idle in this respect ; they seem to take an interest in the 
matter in common with Liberians (proper). 

Though gradually, yet how certainly is civilization spreading 
over this Continent. Please say to the worthy gentlemen consti- 
tuting your Board, that the pecuniary aid tendered the company 
(loan) in 1851 may be classed among the most prudent and ben- 
eficial acts in the annals of colonization. 

I had the pleasure of being handed your letter of introduction, 
to and by Captain Lynch, United States Navy. I accompanied him 
up to Bexley on the 8th instant, and found it quite a treat to spend 



a day in his very agreeable and enlightened company. I am pre- 
paring some specimens of coffee from my farm, which he has kind- 
ly promised and offered to exhibit at the World's Fair, next June, 
in New York. I must close by subscribing myself, respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, Stephen A. Benson. 

From Thomas Mason. 

Mr. Mason was born free, in Pennsylvania — went to Liberia a 
year or two ago. 

Cape Palmas, February 3, 1853. 
My dear Sir, — In your letter you expressed a desire to know 
my first impressions of Liberia and Liberian society. On my ar- 
rival at Monrovia, Mr. James very kindly invited us to spend the 
day at his house, which invitation we accepted. While on shore, 
I became acquainted with quite a number of intelligent ladies 
and gentlemen. The society at Monrovia I think similar to that 
of Philadelphia, while that at Bassa Cove and Edina I think less 
favorably of I am now living at Mount Vaughan, about two 
and a half miles from Cape Palmas, at which place I am em- 
ployed as an assistant teacher in the high school belonging to the 
Protestant Episcopal Mission, for which I receive three hundred 
dollars. The society at Palmas, when we compare the number, 
is equal to that of Monrovia in point of intelligence. This colony 
is in quite a flourishing condition. There are in Palmas seven 
yoke of oxen, well broken, and work quite steadily. We get the 
bullocks from the natives, at eight dollars a piece. I have drawn 
my farm land, and planted five hundred coffee-trees, twelve 
pounds of ginger, and a thousand cassada sticks, besides arrow- 
root, pea-nuts, and fruit trees. We have an abundance of fresh 
vegetables, egg-plants, tomatoes, and fine large cabbage. Plenty 
of venison, fresh fish, and oysters. We are on the eve of de- 
claring our independence. The spirit with which the people take 
hold of the subject would do credit to 1776. There will be a 
Convention held next week, to prepare a Constitution for our 
new state. 

Yours most respectfully Thomas Mason. 



From Samuel H. G. Sharp. 
Born free, in Camden, N. J. 

Grand Bassa, February, 1853. 
Dear Sir, — I received your letter in answer to mine, and was 
very glad to hear from you ; also to receive those papers you 
sent me. My health and that of my family is tolerable. At 
present we are perfectly satisfied, and glad we came here. The 
society did a good part by us. I have a house and ten acres of 
good land ; all but three acres in cultivation. I do not find it so 
w^arm here as I had been told or as I expected. I have tried 
both seasons. Tell the colored people they need not be afraid to 
come, but they must be industrious, or they had better stay where 
they are. I would not change homes now if they would give 
me five hundred dollars and free toleration. Every man can 
vote. I visited the courts, where I saw colored men judges, 
grand and petit jurymen, squires, constables, &c. Business is 
carried on as correctly as in the United States. 

I remain yours truly, Samuel H. G. Sharp. 

From Henri/ B. Steuart. 

Mr. Steuart is from the South — born a slave — was freed, and 
went to Liberia about four years ago. 

Green-srille, Liberia, February, 1853. 
Dear Sir, — You wish that I would give some statement of 
things in general, and in particular of the growth of cotton, rice, 
&c. Our answer is this : this is emphatically a tropical region, 
as all geographers w ill tell you. You have only to put your seed 
into the ground, and with half the labor you have to perform in 
the states you here may make a comfortable living. Cotton 
and rice grow here as well as in your Southern States. It is 
true, a fair trial was never made for the culture of that valuable 
staple (cotton), enough to prove that it can be raised in great 
quantity. Rice is indigenous to this country: it will grow eil- 
most any where you may plant it, on high or low land. We have 
colfee, potatoes, ginger, arrow-root, and pepper. There has not 



been much pains taken with the planting of com; enough has 
been done, however, to satisfy one that it can be made, for I have 
eaten as much as I wanted in proof of it. 

As respects coffee and other products, for a recent comer and 
a young man, I need only refer to Mr. Joseph Bacon, one among 
many others who bid fair to become independent farmers, to say 
nothing of those who are living at ease on their farms. Come 
and see for yourselves. Born and raised for the first part of my 
life among the very best farmers of Liberty county, Georgia, I 
know that these things can be raised in great quantities. 

You wish to know what is my occupation. I answer, a little 
of any and every thing, from a house carpenter to a boat-maker. 
I have not yet seen the day that I have regretted my coming to 
this country. All my objects have been realized, while I have 
contributed my humble aid in laying the foundation of a civil and 
religious government. 

From J. M. Richardson. 

Monrovia, February 13, 1853. 
To THE N. Y. Emigration and Agricultural Association : 
Gentlemen, — Since I have been here I have done very well, 
better than I expected. I have bought five hundred dollars worth 
of goods and paid for them. I have bought ten bullocks. I have 
on hand one hundred bushels of rice. I paid in trade about forty 
cents. If I keep which I shall do three months longer, I can get 
$1 50 por bushel for it. I also have on hand six tons of cam- 
wood. I want to increase it to ten tons by next month, and shall 
ship it to England by the steamer on the 7th, and remit the money 
to New York by a bill of exchange, so as to have more funds here 
in the vessel which I understood will sail from New York with 
our emigrants in the spring. I had only eight hundred dollars 
worth of goods when I started from New York. I have on my 
shelves one thousand dollars worth now. Notwithstanding, I 
shall send one thousand dollars to New York after more goods. 
I also have fifty pounds of ivory, worth here one dollar per pound. 
I write this to show you what can be done here with a very little 



money. If a man has half what I had he would soon get rich, if 
he conducted himself aright ; if a man has nothing, and came out 
under our Association, having a house and lands cleared, he would 
soon rise, if he has any spirit ; therefore, come one, come all to 
the sunny climes of Africa. 

Our expedition are all getting along finely ; most of them have 
the fever now, but they are now all able to be about, with a pros- 
pect of soon recovering. I was attacked with the fever on Christ- 
mas-day, and am now considered entirely well. I, at all events, 
feel as well as ever I did in America. 

I am now in Monrovia, where I have been one week trying to 
buy coffee scions, but there is such a great demand for them that 
I fear I shall not be able to get more than a thousand. I want 
seven thousand to plant in April. 

I have had several interviews with the president — I had not 
this pleasure in the States. He is very atfable and gentlemanly ; 
he received me with great cordiality. I should have told you be- 
forehand that he and his lady called at my store, up the river, 
and invited me to call and see them ; they also bought quite large- 
ly of my wares. He offered to assist me in any way he could, if 
I wished any assistance. 

As the steamer is about to sail, I must close. Give my respects 
to all the boys ; tell them that I am in good health and spirits ; 
tell them, if they want to feel like men, to come to Liberia. 

Please write to me via England ; the steamer stops here once 
a month. Your most obedient servant, 

J. M. Richardson. 

From William W. Findlay. 

Upper Caldwell, Liberia, March 8, 1853. 
To Governor Wright, of Indiana : 
Sir, — As I look upon you as being an old friend of mine, I take 
pleasure in addressing you a few hues to let you know something 
about how we are getting along in Liberia, believing you to be a 
true friend to Liberia, and to the colored race. 

I am much pleased with this country, and I do believe that 



every colored man that respects himself as a man would do well 
to come here, for truly I do tiiink that it is a good country ; but, 
like all other new countries, a man has privations to undergo, and 
a reasonable man can not expect that he can get every thing here 
as handy as he can in old, settled countries. But if he has money, 
he need not lack for luxuries here, and some that he can not get 
in America. 

To be sure, there is some sickness here in going through the 
acclimation process ; but when we come to look at the people 
who come here, we must expect it. But in the last three or 
four expeditions that have come out, there have been but few 

Now I shall say something about agriculture and the prospects. 
This country is, I suppose, as good a coffee and sugar country as 
there is in any place in the world ; at least, it is pronounced so 
by those that pretend to judge of these things. We may plant 
coffee, and on the same land raise arrow-root, bird-pepper, or 
ginger at the same time, and, by so doing, keep the coffee clean 
after it is planted — raise a crop of arrow-root, ginger, or bird- 
pepper, which I believe will pay all the other expenses, and will 
pay the interest until the coffee commences to bear, which will 
be about the third year. 

And now in the States there are several gentlemen that have 
offered to find men to go into the coffee speculation, which they 
can not help making money at. If there should be a friend of 
mine, or a friend to Liberia, who will go into that business, I 
should be happy in hearing from him. The pepper, ginger, and 
such things as I should raise, I should expect those who went in 
with me to attend to in America, to sell these things, and send 
me in return such things as I should need to carry on business 
with. If there should be any that would be willing to risk money 
in that way, I should be glad to hear from them. 

I have been appointed a justice of the peace in Caldwell coun- 
ty. Nothing more than I remain your humble servant, 




From Samuel Williams. 

Mr. AA'iHiams, a free colored man of Pennsylvania, intelligent, 
respectable, and rich for one of his class, was sent about a year 
since to Liberia, by an association of his people in this state, who 
desired to learn the prospects that country held out for the emi- 
grants. The following is an extract from his report : 

" Here I must end my advice and my report of what I have 
seen. Much that is to me deeply interesting I must omit. It 
only remains for me to return my sincere thanks to those whose 
friendship has cheered me, in undertaking a voyage fraught with 
anxiety and peril, but which has richly repaid me. I see in Li- 
beria the elements of a great state. From her borders I behold 
an influence issuing which shall yet elevate my race in the fu- 
ture to that proud position which it once held in the past. Al- 
though they are my birth-place, and the birth-land of my fathers, 
and endeared to me as holding the bones of a now sainted parent, 
it is my wish only to remain in the United States until a company 
can be organized which shall go out together, taking with them 
a saw-mill and an apparatus for making iron — ore yielding, in Li- 
beria, 90 per cent. In a few months longer, I trust, I shaU go to 
the home of my fathers, there to aid in upbuilding a new republic, 
and in founding a mighty empire. Would to God I could per- 
suade my brethren every where to go with me, so that after being 
aliens and exiles, like Israel in Egypt, for so many long years, 
we might at least die in the land of our fathers. 

Samuel Williams." 

The following documents, addresses, d:c., all written by color- 
ed men. will show the character of the government established 
in Liberia, and also the character and talents of the people who 
have formed, adopted, and now uphold just, wise, and righteous 



Declaration of Independence. 

We, the representatives of the people of the Coir; mon wealth 
of Liberia, in Convention assembled, invested with authority to 
form a new government, relying upon the aid and protection of 
the Great Arbiter of human events, do hereby, in the name and 
on behalf of the people of this Commonwealth, publish and declare 
the said Commonwealth a Free, Sovereign, and Indeyendent State, 
by the name and title of the Republic of Liberia. 

We, the people of the Republic of Liberia, were originally the 
inhabitants of the United States of North America. 

In some parts of that country, we were debarred by law from 
all the rights and privileges of men — in other parts, pubhc senti- 
ment, more powerful than law, frowned us down. 

We were every where shut out from all civil office. 

We were excluded from all participation in the government. 

We w^ere taxed without our consent. 

We were compelled to contribute to the resources of a country 
which gave us no protection. 

We were made a separate and distinct class, and against us 
every avenue of improvement was effectually closed. Strangers 
from all lands, of a color different from ours, were preferred be- 
fore us. 

We uttered our complaints ; but they were unattended to, or 
only met by alleging the peculiar institutions of the country. 

All hope of a favorable change in our country was thus wholly 
extinguished in our bosoms, and we looked with anxiety abroad 
for some asylum from the deep degradation. 

The western coast of Africa Avas the place selected by Ameri- 
can benevolence and philanthropy for our future home. Re- 
moved beyond those influences which depressed us in our native 
land, it was hoped we would be enabled to enjoy those rights 
and privileges, and exercise and improve those faculties which 
the God of nature has given us in common with the rest of man- 

Under the auspices of the American Colonization Society, we 



established ourselves here, on land acquired by purchase from 
the lords of the soil. 

In an original compact with this society, we, for important rea- 
sons, delegated to it certain political powers ; while this institution 
stipulated that whenever the people should become capable of 
conducting the government, or whenever the people should de- 
sire it, this institution would resign the delegated power, peace- 
ably withdraw its supervision, and leave the people to the govern- 
ment of themselves. 

Under the auspices and guidance of this institution, which has 
nobly and in perfect faith redeemed its pledges to the people, we 
have grown and prospered. 


Among the strongest motives to leave our native land — to 
abandon forever the scenes of our childhood, and to sever the 
most endeared connections — was the desire for a retreat where, 
free from the agitations of fear and molestation, we could in 
composure and security approach in worship the God of our 

Thus far our highest hopes have been realized. 

Liberia is already the happy home of thousands who were once 
the doomed victims of oppression, and if left unmolested to go on 
with her natural and spontaneous growth ; if her movements be 
left free from the paralyzing intrigues of jealous, ambitious, and 
unscrupulous avarice, she will throw open a wider and yet a 
wider door for thousands w^ho are now looking with an anxious 
eye for some land of rest. 

Our courts of justice are open equally to the stranger and the 
' citizen for the redress of grievances, for the remedy of injuries, 
and for the punishment of crime. 

Our numerous and well attended schools attest our efforts, and 
our desire for the improvement of our children. 

Our churches for the worship of our Creator, every where to 
be seen, bear testimony to our piety, and to our acknowledgment 
of His Providence. 

The native African, bowing down with us before the altar of 



the living God, declare that from us, feeble as we are, the light 
of Christianity has gone forth, while upon that curse of curses, 
the slave-trade, a deadly blight has fallen, as far as our influence 

Therefore, in the name of humanity, and virtue, and religion — 
in the name of the Great God, our common Creator and our com- 
mon Judge, we appeal to the nations of Christendom, and earn- 
estly and respectfully ask of them that they will regard us with 
the sympathy and friendly consideration to which the peculiari- 
ties of our condition entitle us, and extend to us that comity 
which marks the friendly mtercourse of civihzed and independent 


We give Article 1. entire, as it is the exponent and guaranty of 
true republican principles — harmonizing with the Gospel precepts 
of " loving our neighbor as ourselves," and doing to others as we 
would be done by — which, we trust, are, by the blessing of God, 
to be extended throughout Africa. 

Article I. Declaration of Rights. 

The end of the institution, maintenance, and administration of 
government, is to secure the existence of the body politic, to pro- 
tect it, and to furnish the individuals who compose it with the 
power of enjoying, in safety and tranquillity, their natural rights, 
and the blessings of life ; and whenever these great objects are 
not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and 
to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity, and hap- 

Therefore, we the people of the Commonwealth of Liberia, in 
Africa, acknowledging with devout gratitude the goodness of God 
in granting to us the blessings of the Christian religion, and po- 
litical, religious, and civil liberty, do, in order to secure these 
Dlessings for ourselves and our posterity, and to establish justice, 
insure domestic peace, and promote the general welfare, hereby 
solemnly associate and constitute ourselves a free, sovereign, and 



independent state, by the name of the Republic of Liberia, and do 
ordain and establish this Constitution, for the government of the 

Sec. 1. All men are born equally free and independent, and have 
certain natural, inherent, and inalienable rights ; among which 
are the rights of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquir- 
ing, possessing, and protecting property, and of pursuing and ob- 
taining safety and happiness. 

Sec. 2. All power is inherent in the people ; ail fi-ee govern- 
ments are instituted by their authority and for their benefit, and 
they have a right to alter and reform the same when their safety 
and happiness require it. 

Sec. 3. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
God according to the dictates of their own consciences, without 
obstruction or molestation from others ; all persons demeaning 
themselves peaceably, and not obstructing others in their relig- 
ious worship, are entitled to the protection of law in the free ex- 
ercise of their own religion, and no sect of Christians shall have 
exclusive privileges or preference over any other sect, but all 
shall be alike tolerated ; and no religious test whatever shall be 
required as a qualification for civil office, or the exercise of any 
civil right. 

Sec. 4. There shall be no slavery within this republic ; nor 
shall any citizen of this republic, or any person resident therein, 
deal in slaves, either within or without this republic, directly or 

Sec. 5. The people have a right at all times, in an orderly and 
peaceable manner, to assemble and consult upon the common 
good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the govern- 
ment or any public functionaries for the redress of grievances. 

Sec. 6. Every person injured shall have remedy therefor by due 
course of law ; justice shall be done without denial or delay ; and 
in all cases not arising under martial law or upon im.peachnient, 
the parties shall have a right to a trial by jur>', and to be heard in 
person, or by counsel, or both. 

Sec. 7. Xo person shall be held to answer for a capital or in- 



famous crime, except in cases of impeachment. Cases arising in 
the army and navy, and petty offenses, unless upon presentment 
by a grand jury ; and every person criminally charged shall have 
a right to be seasonably furnished with a copy of the charge, to 
be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have a 
speedy, public, and impartial trial by a jury of the vicinity. He 
shall not be compelled to furnish or give evidence against him- 
self, and no person shall for the same offense be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb. 

Sec. 8. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, property, 
or privilege, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the 

Sec. 9. No place shall be searched nor person seized, on a crim- 
inal charge or suspicion, unless upon warrant lawfully issued, 
upon probable cause supported by oath or solemn affirmation, 
specially designating the place or person, and the object of the 

Sec. 10. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor excessive punishments inflicted ; nor shall the 
Legislature make any law impairing the obhgation of contracts ; 
nor any law rendering any act punishable, in any manner in which 
it was not punishable when it was committed. 

Sec. 11. All elections shall be by ballot, and every male citizen, 
of twenty-one years of age, possessing real estate, shall have the 
right of suffrage. 

Sec. 12. The people have a right to keep and to bear arms for 
the common defense. As in time of peace armies are dangerous 
to liberty, they ought not to be maintained without the consent 
of the Legislature, and the military power shall always be held in 
exact subordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it. 

Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken for public use with- 
out just compensation. 

Sec. 14. The powers of this government shall be divided into 
three distinct departments, the Legislative, Executive, and Judi 
cial, and no person belonging to one of these departments shaU 



exercise any of the powers belonging to either of the others. 
This section is not to be construed to include justices of the peace. 

Sec. 15. The liberty of the press is essential to the security of 
freedom in a state ; it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in 
this republic. 

The press shall be free to every person who undertakes to ex- 
amine the proceedings of the Legislature or any branch of gov- 
ernment ; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the rights 
thereof The free communication of thoughts and opinions is 
one of the invaluable rights of man. and every citizen may freely 
speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the 
abuse of that liberty. * * * And in all indictments for libels, 
the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, un- 
der the direction of the court, as in other cases. 

Sec. 16. No subsidy, charge, impost, or duties ought to be es- 
tablished, fixed, laid, or levied, under any pretext whatsoever, 
without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the 

Sec. 17. Suits may be brought against the republic in such man- 
ner and in such cases as the Legislature may by law direct. 

Sec. 18. No person can, in any case, be subjected to the law 
martial, or to any penalties or pains by \irtue of that law (except 
those employed in the army or navy, and except the mihtia in 
actual service), but by the authority of the Legislature. 

Sec. 19. In order to prevent those who are vested with author- 
ity from becoming oppressors, the people have a right, at such 
periods, and in such manner as they shall establish by their frame 
of government, to cause their public officers to return to private 
life, and to fill up vacant places by certain and regular elections 
and appointments. 

Sec. 20. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient secu- 
rities, unless for capital offenses, when the proof is evident, or 
presumption great ; and the privilege and benefit of the writ of 
Habeas Corpus shall be enjoyed in this republic, in the most free, 
easy, cheap, expeditious, and ample manner, and shall not be sus- 
pended by the Legislature, except upon the most urgent and 



pressing occasions, and for a limited time, not exceeding twelve 

The legislative powers are vested in a Legislature, consisting 
of two separate branches — a Senate and House of Representa- 
tives. The Representatives are apportioned according to the 
number of inhabitants. Two years' residence in the county 
which elects him, real estate to the value of one hundred and 
fifty dollars, and the age of twenty-three, constitute eligibihty to 
the office of representative. 

The Senate consists of tw^o members from each county. No 
person can be elected to this office w^ho has not resided three 
years in the repubhc previous to his election, who does not own 
real estate to the value of two hundred dollars, and who shall not 
have attained the age of tw^enty-five. 

The supreme executive power resides in a president, elected 
by the people, and holding his office for two years. No person 
can be eligible who has not been a resident of the republic five 
years, who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five, and 
who shall not be possessed of real estate to the value of six hund- 
red dollars. The duties of these several officers and bodies are 
similar to those in our own country. 

The judicial power is vested in one supreme judicial court, and 
such subordinate courts as the Legislature, from time to time, 
may establish. 

From the Inaugural Address of President Roberts. 
The time has been, I admit, when men, without being charge- 
able with timidity, or with a disposition to undervalue the capac- 
ities of the African race, might have doubted the success of the 
colonization enterprise, and the feasibility of establishing an in- 
dependent Christian State on this coast, composed of, and con- 
ducted w^holly by, colored men ; but, fellow-citizens, that time 
has passed. The American Colonization Society has redeemed 
its pledge ; and I believe in my soul that the permanency of the 
government of thp RpDublic of Liberia is now fixed upon as firm a 



basis as human wisdom is capable of devising. Nor is there any 
reason to apprehend that the Divine Disposer of human events, 
after having separated us from the house of bondage, and led us 
safely through so many dangers toward the land of liberty and 
promise, will leave the work of our political redemption and con- 
sequent happiness unfinished, and either permit us to perish in a 
wilderness of difficulties, or suffer us to be carried back in chains 
to that country of prejudices from whose oppression he has mer- 
cifully delivered us with his outstretched arm. 

And, fellow-citizens, it must afford the most heartfelt pleasure 
and satisfaction to every friend of Liberia, and real lover of lib- 
erty in genera], to observe by what a fortunate train of circum- 
stances and incidents the people of th^se colonies have arrived 
at absolute freedom and independence. When we look abroad 
and see by what slow and painful steps, marked with blood and 
ills of every kind, other states of the world have advanced to lib- 
erty and independence, we can not but admire and praise that all- 
gracious Providence, who, by his unerring ways, has, with so few 
sufferings on our part, compared with other states, led us to this 
happy stage in our progress toward those great and important ob- 
jects. And that it is the will of Heaven that mankind should be 
free, is clearly evidenced by the wealth, vigor, virtue, and conse- 
quent happiness of all free states. But the idea that Providence 
will establish such governments as he shall deem most fit for his 
creatures, and will give them wealth, influence, and happiness, 
without their efforts, is palpably absurd. In short, God's moral 
government of the earth is always performed by the intervention 
of second causes. Therefore, fellow-citizens, while with pious 
gratitude we survey the frequent interpositions of Heaven in our 
behalf, we ought to remember that, as the disbelief of an over- 
ruling Providence is atheism, so an absolute confidence of having 
our government relieved from every embarrassment, and its cit- 
izens made respectable and happy by the immediate hand of God, 
without our own exertions, is the most culpable presumption. 
Nor have we any reason to expect that He will miraculously 
make Liberia a paradise, and deliver us, in a moment of time, 



from all the ills and inconveniences consequent upon the peculiar 
circumstances under which we are placed, merely to convince us 
tiiat He favors our cause and government. 

I ask you to join with me in supplications that He will so en- 
lighten the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and pros- 
per their measures, that whatsoever they do shall result in your 
good, and shall secure to you the peace, friendship, and approba- 
tion of all nations. 

From another Address by the President. 

The following passages are selected from the first message 
(..fter the adoption of the present Constitution of the republic) to 
tue national Legislature ; 

" Our situation, however, for forming a political society, and 
erecting a free government, is more favorable, in many respects, 
tLSLTi that of any people who have preceded us. We have the 
history and experience of all states before us : mankind have 
b ;en toiling through all ages for our information, and the philos- 
ophers and learned men of antiquity have trimmed their midnight 
kmps to transmit to us instructions. We live, also, in an age 
when the principles of political liberty and the foundation of gov- 
e -nment have been fully canvassed and fairly settled. 

" With these lights before them, our delegates have given us a 
t 3nstitution founded, not upon party or prejudice, not for to-day 
o ■ to-morrow, but for posterity. It is founded in good policy, bc- 
c:iuse, in my humble opinion, it is founded in justice and honesty. 
Ail ambitious and interested views seem to have been entirely 
d iscarded, and regard had only to the good of the whole, in which 
t: e situation and rights of posterity are considered, and equal 
j'tstice has been done to every citizen of the republic. And the 
highest respect has been paid to those great and equal rights of 
h-man nature which should forever remain inviolate hi every so- 
ciety. Proper attention has also been given to the separation of 
the three great powers of the state. Indeed, it is essential to 
lii^erty that the legislative, judicial, and executive powers of the 




government be, as nearly as possible, independent of, and separate 
from, each other ; for, were they united in the same persons, 
there would be wanting that mutual check which is the principal 
security against the making of arbitrary laws and a wanton exer- 
cise of power in the execution of them. If these three powers 
are united, the government will be absolute, whether they are in 
the hands of a few or a great number. Tiie same party will be 
the legislator, accuser, judge, and executioner. "What probabil- 
ity, then, as I have heard it remarked, will an accused person 
have of an acquittal, however innocent he m*ay be, when his judge 
is also a party 1 " 

Having shown the wisdom of the Convention who adopted the 
Constitution of the republic in their careful provisions to keep 
distinct and independent of each other the three great depart- 
ments of the government. President Roberts adds : 

" But, gentlemen, it is to be remembered, that whatever marks 
of wisdom, experience, and patriotism there may be in our new 
Constitution, like the just proportions and elegant fonns of our 
first parents, before their Maker breathed into them the breath 
of life, it is yet to be animated, and, until then, may indeed excite 
admiration, but it will be of no use ; from the people it must re- 
ceive its spirit, and by them be quickened. Let virtue, honor, the 
love of liberty, and science be and remain the soul of our present 
Constitution, and it must, it will become the source of great and 
extensive happiness to this and future generations." 

One other paper from President Roberts merits insertion here, 
as it indicates a firm determination on the part of the Liberian 
government to uphold the principles of freedom for all Africans 
under its protection. The fact that from subjects of Great Brit- 
ain such violation is now feared, is curious, and should be care- 
fully investigated.* 

* From an article on " Slavery in Disguise," written by Rev. J. Morris Pease, 
nd published in the June number of the " Colonization Herald," we gather that 
a London company is actually engaged in bargaining with native chiefs of the 
Kroo tribe in Africa for" men, women, and children, which this company have 



A Proclamation hy the President of Liberia. 
Whereas Messrs. Hyde, Hodge, and Co., of London, contract- 
ors with her Britannic majesty's government to furnish laborers 
from the African coast for the West Indies, have sent some of 
their ships to the coast of the repubhc, offering an advance of ten 
dollars for every person who may be induced to emigrate ; and 
whereas the extinction of the slave-trade has left large numbers 
of predial and other laborers in the possession of the chiefs and 
principal men of the country, while the otfer of ten dollars each 
is nearly equivalent to the amount formerly paid for slaves during 
the prevalence of the slave-trade, and which operated mainly in 
producing and sustaining the wars by which the country was 
distracted ; 

And whereas certain refractory chiefs are reported to have 
engaged with the agents of said company to furnish a number of 
laborers, and are further known to have in concealment, near 
Grand Cape Mount, a number of unhappy victims of their preda- 
tory excursions ; and whereas complaint has been made to the 
government that persons are held to be sent off without their 
voluntary consent, or the consent of their natural guardians ; 
therefore, to prevent the abuses and evils which might otherwise 
result from the enterprise, 

contracted to deliver to agents in British Guiana and Jamaica, to be employed 
as laborers. Mr. Pease quotes from the report of .Mr. Hamilton, an agent of the 
British government, sent to negotiate with the negro chiefs for laborers," as 
these forced emigrants were styled, showing that the people are under the ab- 
solute control of their chiefs, and must go when sent or sold. Mr. Pease thus 
concludes his article : 

"It will be seen, throughout the whole of the agent's reports, that the par- 
ties with whom they invariably put themselves in communication were the 
chiefs, and not the people ; and they always assumed the right of these chiefs 
to control their movements. To dignify such a mode of obtaining emigrants as 
free, is a delusion and a mockery. We close with the remark, that for any in- 
dividual, parties, or government to negotiate with the Kroo, or any other Afri- 
can chiefs, for the labor or services of their people for periods of years, is real- 
ly to sanction the principle of slave-trading, and to open the way to the revival, 
in new forms, of a traffic afainst which humanity revolts, and which the re- 
ligion of the Go.spel condemns." 



Be it known by this proclamation, to all whom it may concern, 
that the law regulating passports must be strictly observed — that 
vessels carrying, or intending to carry away emigrants, must 
come to this port with their emigrants on board to obtain pass- 
ports — in order that an opportunity may be presented to the gov- 
ernment to ascertain whether the emigration be free or con- 
strained. Every violation of the law regulating passports will 
be visited with the utmost penalty of the law, in that case made 
and provided. 

Done at Monrovia, this twenty-sixth day of February, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, and 
of the republic the fifth. J. J. Roberts. 

Flag and Seal of the Republic of Liberia. 

The following Flag and Seal were adopted by the Convention, 
as the insignia of the Republic of Liberia, and ordered to be em- 
ployed to mark its nationality : 

Flag — six red stripes, with five white stripes alternately dis- 
played longitudinally. In the upper angle of the flag, next to the 
spear, a square blue ground, covering in depth five stripes. Id 
the centre of the blue, one white star. 

Seal — a dove on the wing, with an open scroll in its claws. A 
view of the ocean, with a ship under sail. The sun just emerg- 
ing from the waters. A palm-tree, and at its base a plow and 
spade. Beneath the emblems, the words Republic of Liberia ; 
and above the emblems, the national motto, the love of liberty 
brought us here. 

The Twenty-fourth of August. 
The twenty-fourth day of August, 1847, was the day appointed 
for raising the flag of the new republic, and its happy dawn was 
announced by the thunder of cannon. At an early hour were 



seen groups of citizens gathered here and there, with a joyful 
smile lighting up every countenance. Old men seemed to have 
renewed their youth, and youth itself moved with a more buoy- 
ant and exastic step. At nine o'clock, the governor and his staff, 
with the military, assembled at the court-house. At the same 
time, people from all quarters were pouring toward the Govern- 
ment Square. At eleven, his excellency was escorted opposite 
to the Government House, where he was met by a band of ladies, 
bearing the flag of their country. On receiving it from Mrs. 
Lewis, accompanied with a short speech, he unfurled it amid the 
cheers and hurras of the assembled multitude. The troops then 
marched up to the Central Fort. At twelve, the first gun of the 
national salute pealed over the waters, when the flag was seen 
majestically arising, and from its lofty height soon floated on the 
breeze, the herald of a brighter day for poor, benighted Africa. 
At the same moment, a responsive gun was heard from Signal 
Hill, as if the mountains echoed the jubilant shout of freedom. 
A salute of twenty-one guns followed, when the procession 
marched to the Methodist church, where were holden exercises 
appropriate to the occasion. 

It was a day which will be long remembered During the cer- 
emony of presenting the flag, many eyes were suffused with tears. 
And, indeed, who that remembered the past could forbear to 
weepl Who that looked back to America, and remembered 
what he saw and felt there, could be otherwise than agitated! 
It is, indeed, a great undertaking ; but that Almighty Being who 
hath conducted us thus far, can and will conduct us to the goal 
at which we aim. — Liberia Herald. 

Hymn Simg on the Occasion. 
Lines by H. Teague, of Monrovia. 

Wake, every tuneful string. 
To God loud praises bring, 
Wake, heart and tongue ; 
In strains of melody, 



And choral harmony 
Sing — for the oppressed are free ; 
Wake, cheerful song. 

See Mesurado's height, 
Illumed with new-born light ; 

Lo ! the lone star; 
Now it ascends the skies ; 
Lo ! the deep darkness flies, 
While new-born glories rise 

And shine afar. 

Shine, life-creating ray — 
Proclaim approaching day; 

Throw wide thy blaze : 
Lo ! savage Hottentot — 
Bosjasman from his cot — 
And nations long forgot, 

Astonished gaze. 

Shout the loud jubilee, 
Afric once more is free — 

Break forth with joy; 
Let rsilus' fettered tongue, 
Let Niger join the song. 
And Congo's loud and long, 

Glad strains employ. 

Star in the East, shine forth. 
Proclaim a nation's birth ; 

Ye nations hear — 
This is our natal day, 
And we our homage pay ; 
To Tliee, Lord, we pray ; 

Lord, hear our prayer ! 



All hail, Liberia ! hail ! 
Favored of God, all hail ! 

Hail, happy band ! 
From virtue ne'er remove : 
By peace, and truth, and love, 
And wisdom from above, 

So shalt thou stand. 

The Colonization ^Iovement. 
Thus far our appendix has shown the opinions of the colored 
people respecting Liberia, and what they have done there. Now 
we add a few pages illustrative of the feeUngs regarding coloniza- 
tion, which are influencing the minds, and calling forth the exer- 
ions of the best and noblest among the white race in America. 

But, first, we will show, from the highest British authority, an 
acknowledgment of the failure of 

West India Emancipation. 

After a full trial by Great Britain of negro emancipation, the fol- 
lowing article in the " London Times" should receive the discreet 
notice of those philanthropists who, in our country, are dealing 
so recklessly with the future happiness of the American blacks : 

" Our legislation has been dictated by the presumed necessities 
of the African slave. After the Emancipation Act, a large charge 
was assessed upon the colony in aid of civil and religious insti- 
tutions for the benefit of the enfranchised negro, and it was hoped 
that these colored subjects of the British crown would soon be 
assimilated to their fellow-citizens. From all the information 
which reaches us, no less than from the visible probabilities of 
the case, we are constrained to believe that these hopes have 
been falsified. The negro has not acquired with his freedom any 
habits of industry or morality. His independence is but little 
better than that of an uncaptured brute. Having accepted few 
of the restraints of civilization, he is amenable to few of its ne- 



cessities ; and the wants of his nature are so easily satisfied, thai 
at the current rate of wages he is called upon for nothing but 
fitful or desultory exertion. The blacks, therefore, instead of be- 
coming intehigent husbandmen, have become vagrants and squat- 
ters ; and it is now apprehended, that with the failure of cultiva- 
tion in the island will come the failure of its resources for in- 
structing or controlling its population. So imminent does this 
consummation appear, that memorials have been signed by classes 
of colonial society hitherto standing aloof from politics, and not 
only the bench and the bar, but the bishop, clergy, and ministers 
of all denominations in the island, without exception, have re- 
corded their conviction that, in the absence of timely relief, the 
religious and educational institutions of the island must be aban- 
doned, and the masses of the population retrograde to barbarisni." 

The Virginia Law on Instruction of Colored Population. 

A committee of the Synod of Virginia, consisting of Samuel C. 
Anderson, Esq., Rev. Peyton Harrison, and Mr. Winfree, were 
appointed to examine the acts of the General Assembly of that 
state, and report to the meeting what the law is touching tlie 
religious instruction of the colored population. 

This committee subsequently reported, that it may be seen by 
reference to the Code of Virginia, chap, cxcviii., <^ 31, 2, pages 
747-8, that there is nothing in the law prohibiting the owner of 
slaves, or any member of his family, with his knowledge and con- 
sent, to teach his own slaves, on his own plantation, in any sub- 
ject and to any extent that may please such owner. 

Southern Views of Liberia. 
By Rev. J. Morris Pease. 

From personal observation we know that the colored people -^f 
the South, both bond and free, are very far in advance of our col- 
ored people of the Free States in a correct knowledge and appie- 
ciation of the real character and condition of the government and 
citizens of Liberia. 

From the first, the largest number of colonists, and some of the 



most distinguished citizens of that republic, have gone from the 
Southern States. From them thousands of letters have reached 
their friends left behind. All over the Southern States the col- 
ored people receive letters from their own dear friends in Liberia. 
We have known whole plantations called together to hear read 
letters from their friends or relatives residing in that country. 

No people in the United States possess to-day a deeper, stron- 
ger, more thrilling and abiding interest in Liberia, or pray more 
earnestly for her prosperity, than do the colored people of the South- 
ern States. Thousands of Christian servants, with the knowledge 
and consent of their masters, are in regular correspondence with 
citizens of that republic. Mothers have their sons, and sisters 
their brothers, who are missionaries of the cross of Christ in 
Western Africa. Many contribute liberally of their earthly sub- 
stance to send the Gospel there, and to sustain the missions al- 
ready established. Christian Liberia is their comfort and their 
hope. With her they sympathize ! for her they pray, belie ving^ 
that at some day they may find their home in her bosom, if not 
for themselves, yet for their children. That republic, that prayer, 
that faith makes them better men — ^better Christians. 

Besides, many Christian masters are educating and preparing 
their servants for freedom, in view of their enlarged usefulness 
in that interesting country. 

We are not aware that these facts have been generally given 
in either the Southern or Northern press, though we are confi- 
dent that the Christian people of the South, with but few excep- 
tions, have a true religious interest in Liberia, and are ready to 
minister their aid in support of her claims. 

Colonization Suppresses the Slave-trade. 
From an Address by the Hon. Edward Everett. 
I must pass to another very important object of the Coloniza- 
tion Society in estabhshing the colony of Liberia, and that is 
the effectual suppression of the slave-trade throughout its extent 
and within the sphere of its influence. It is grievous to reflect 
that contemporaneously with the discovery of our own continent, 
N 2 



and from motives of kindness to its natives, the whole western 
coast of Africa was thrown open to that desolating traffic, which 
from time immemorial had been carried on from the ports of the 
Mediterranean, by the Nile, and along the eastern coasts of the 
continent. It is still more painful to consider that the very pe- 
riod at which the modern culture of the west of Europe was 
making the most rapid progress, is that at which Africa began to 
suffer the most from its connection with Europe. 

It was the age of Shakspeare, of Spencer, of Hooker, and of 
Lord Bacon, of those other brightest suns in the firmament of 
England's glory, that her navigators first engaged in this detest- 
able traffic, and vessels bearing, as if in derision, the venerable 
names of Jesus and Solomon were sent from Great Britain to 
the coast of Africa — at a time when some of the last remnants 
of the feudal system were broken down in England and France 
— when private war had wholly ceased — when men began to ven- 
ture from the covert of the walled towns and traverse the high 
roads, and live in the open country' in safety, these very states, 
the most civilized in Europe, began to struggle for the monopoly 
of that cruel trade, which was carried on by exciting the barbar- 
ous races of Africa to new fury against each other, and by intro- 
ducing a state of universal war, not merely between nation and 
nation, but between tribe and tribe, village and village, and al- 
most between house and house. In fact, it is not without exam- 
ple that these benighted beings have delivered their wives and 
children to the slave-dealers. 

Thus, the western coast of Africa became, like the northeast- 
ern and eastern coasts, one great slave market, and so remained 
for nearly three centuries. It is now about twenty years since 
the powers of Christendom, excited to activity by philanthropic 
operations and benevolent individuals, began the warfare upon 
this cruel traffic. The American colonies, before their independ- 
ence, passed laws for its abolition, which were uniformly nega- 
tived by the crown. The Revolutionary Congress, in the first 
year of its existence, denounced the traffic, and the Constitution 
of the United States appointed a date for its prospective abolition. 



This example has been successfully followed by other states. 
The trade is now forbidden by the laws of every Christian and 
most of the Mohammedan powers of Europe and Asia. It still 
exists, however, to a frightful extent, and the more active the 
means used to suppress it by blockade and cruisers, the greater 
the cruelty incident to its practice, by crowding the slave-ships 
with a greater number of victims. Such being the case, many 
of those in England who have taken the greatest interest in the 
suppression of the traffic have seriously proposed to abandon the 
system of blockade and cruisers, and resort to other expedients; 
and of these, unquestionably, none can be compared for efficiency 
with settlement of the coast. 

It is necessary only to look at the map to see what an import- 
ant extent of country has been rescued in this way from the di- 
rest scourge which ever affiicted hum.anity. The last of the an- 
cient slave-marts, Gallinas, has been lately purchased and brought 
within the limits of Liberia. Along a hne of coast not less ex- 
tensive than that from Maine to Georgia, from every bay, and 
within the shelter of every headland of which this traffic was 
carried on within the memory of man, the slave traffic has been 
wholly rooted out. What could not be effected by congresses of 
sovereigns at Vienna or Aix-la-Chapelle, by quintuple treaties, or 
by squadrons of war steamers, has been brought about by these 
feeble colonial settlements, of which that of Liberia has been 
obliged to struggle its way into permanence — drawing its sup- 
plies almost exclusively from the perennial fountains of Chris- 
tian benevolence. 

American Slavery has improved the Colored Man. 
From an Address by Hon. Daniel Webster. 
Gentlemen, there is a Power above us which sees the end of 
all things from the beginning, though we see it not. Almighty 
God is his own interpreter of the ways of his own providence ; 
and I sometimes contemplate with amazement, and I may say 
with adoration, events w^hich have taken place through the in- 
strumentality of the cupidity and criminality of men, designed 



nevertheless to work out great ends of beneficence and goodness, 
by our Creator. 

African slaves were brought hither to the shores of this con- 
tinent almost simultaneously with the first tread of a white 
man's foot upon this our North America. We see in that, our 
shori-sightedness only sees, the effect of a desire of the white 
man to appropriate to himself the results of the labor of the black 
man as an inferior and a slave. Now let us look at it. 

These negroes, and all who have succeeded them, brought 
hither as captives taken in the wars of their ovm petty provinces, 
ignorant and barbarous, without the knowledge of God, and with 
no reasonable knowledge of their own character and condition, 
have come here, and here, although in a subordinate, in an inferi- 
or, in an enslaved condition, have learned more, and become to 
know more of themselves and of their Creator, than all whom 
they have left behind them in their own barbarous kingdoms. It 
would seem that this is the mode, as far as we can judge, this is 
the destiny, the rule of things established by Providence, by which 
knowledge, letters, and Christianity shall be returned by the de- 
scendants of those poor, ignorant barbarians who were brought 
here as slaves, to the country from which they came. 

Who but must wonder, who can fail to see what appears to ^ 
be so plainly the indication in the providence of God. He who 
now goes back to Africa under the auspices of this society is an 
intelhgent man. He knows that he is an immortal man, what 
his ancestors hardly knew, except from that instinctive principle 
which perv^ades all human nature, that there is an hereafter. He 
has the lights of knowledge ; he has the hghts of Christianity, 
and he goes back infinitely more advanced in all that makes him 
a respectable human being than his ancestors were when they 
were brought from the barbarism of Africa to slavery in the Unit- 
ed States. 

Colonization an Kct of Justice. 
By Rev. John P. Durbin, D.D. 
It was a stupendous public wrong to commence it (slavery) ; 



it is a measure of public justice not only to put a stop to it, but 
to remedy the wrongs and evils which have flowed from it. These 
wrongs and evils, operating through a long series of years, have 
entwined themselves with the vast and complicated interests and 
institutions of a large portion of our country ; and it will require 
a long series of years to accomplish the remedy effectually. But 
Providence allows time to work out the ends of public justice, 
and always seconds the efforts of man, if made sincerely, wisely, 
and patiently. Let us, then, do our part in setting on foot a sys- 
tem of public policy that shall safely, peacefully, and equitably 
render this great act of public justice to the millions of the exiled 
children of Africa. 

But this act of public justice connects with the natural right 
of these people, and with the divine will not doubtfully expressed. 
In pursuance of the divine distribution of the earth among the 
different races of men, God gave Africa to the race from which 
our colored people come. The deed of distribution and the rea- 
son for it are found in holy Scripture, in these words : " God hath 
made of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face 
of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed^ and the 
bounds of their habitation ; that they should seek the Lord, if haply 
they might feel after him and find him^ Who can doubt but the 

bounds of the habitation" of these people are in Africa 1 Who 
can doubt but in that part of the world is their lot, in working out 
the wise designs of a Providence known to man only as God 
manifests them by the signs of the times 1 Perhaps this wise 
and mysterious Providence has permitted their bondage in order 
to prepare them to be the instruments of Christian civilization 
and religion to their vast and populous country. Had they re- 
mained in their own country, they would have remained pagans ; 
in their slavery and exile they have become Christians in their 
ideas and feelings, and many of them truly experimental and in- 
telligent Christians. Return them to Africa, and they will form 
a Christian republic whose light and civilization will illuminate 
and reform the western part of that great and gloomy continent. 
This single consideration is sufficient to move this whole coun- 



try to action in favor of colonization. And if such be the designs 
of Providence, who shall estimate the guilt and punishment of 
our people if we refuse to send home these prepared mission- 
aries, now^ that God, by the signs of the times, is intimating His 
will that we now enter upon the w ork 1 

Blessings of African Colonization. 

From a Discourse delivered before the Louisiana State Colonization Society, 
by Rev. Dr. Scott, of New Orleans. 

Another great blessing of the emigration of our free people of 
color to Africa, is that they carry with them the Gospel. This 
is the only practicable means that presents itself to the pious for 
the Christianization and civilization of that vast continent. How 
else can w^e hope to emancipate one hundred and fifty millions of 
people on that continent from ignorance, superstition, and pagan- 
ism 1 What enterprise is more grand and noble, and worthy of 
our thoughts, prayers, and contributions, than the attempt to bring 
Africa under the influence of the Gospel 1 A wise and good man 
once said, if he were sure that he would die to-morrow, he would 
plant a tree to-day, whose shade or fruit might bless the coming 
generation. This man had a soul truly great, and in the likeness 
of the Creator. He looked forward to the future. 

And if we look to the future of this grand movement ; and see- 
ing how the feeble beginning has grown into an independent re- 
public, with seven hundred miles of sea-coast, and territory suffi- 
cient to accommodate all the black population of these United 
States, and country capable of raising all the leading and great 
products of the tropical climates, cotton, corn, rice, sugar, and cof- 
fee — who among us can look to the future of this grand move- 
ment 1 Who can read the microscope, or prophesy from the con- 
figuration of the planets, which presided over the birth of the free, 
independent, and Christianized Republic of Liberia, wiiat shall 
be its history as it sweeps onward through the track of time, en- 
lightening and redeeming that vast continent 1 The returning of 
the negroes of this continent to their fatherland, has made Africa 



the " land of promise" to the black man, as this country has be- 
come to the European Continent. 

And when England asks in time to come, as she has often done 
heretofore, and not without a sneer, What has America done for 
the negro 1 w^e may. gladly say, Look to Liberia, and see what 
America has done for the negro, for Africa, and for Christ. See 
there the only country on the globe in which the negro is a man, 
in full possession of all the rights of a man. See there a colony 
of intelligent, moral, and industrious people, grown already into a 
nation, carrying the English language, and science, and com- 
merce, and arts, and the glad tidings of the Gospel, and of repub- 
lican liberties, into the darkest regions of heathenism and slavery. 
And if fifty years hence England dares to ask again, " What has 
America done for the negro?' then all Africa will respond, say- 
ing, " The continent which England once robbed and ravaged, 
and from which she tore our bleeding sires, now smiles and re- 
joices in the light shed upon it by the sons of those exiles, re- 
turned to us ladened with Heaven's best blessings, through the 
Christian intelhgence and philanthropy of America." 

I do not doubt but that the whole continent of Africa will be 
regenerated, and I believe the Republic of Liberia will be the great 
instrument, in the hands of God, in working out this regeneration. 
The colony of Liberia has succeeded better than the colony of 
Plymouth did for the same period of time. And yet, in that little 
company which was wafted across the mighty ocean in the May 
Flower, we see the germs of this already colossal nation, whose 
feet are in the tropics, while her head reposes upon the snows of 
Canada. Her right hand sh« stretches over the Atlantic, feeding 
the millions of the Old World, and beckoning them to her shores, 
as a refuge from famine and oppression ; and, at the same time, 
she stretches forth her left hand to the islands of the Pacific, and 
to the old empires of the East, full of the blessings of the arts and 
sciences, of trade, civilization, and pure rehgion. And does not 
faith tell us that the lone star, that our example and benevolence 
has made to appear in the very central regions of African barba- 



rism, shall become a mighty constellation, whose glorious light 
shall beam along the dark valleys of the Niger and Senegal, and 
make the Mountains of the Moon reflect the glory of the sun of 
righteousness, and that Africa redeemed, and having placed the 
topmost jewel in the crown of her great deliverer, shall sit with 
Europe, Asia, and America, clothed and in their right minds, at 
the feet of Jesus of Nazareth 1 


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